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What are Cells:
Basic Units of Life
What is the Cell Theory?
- 1. A cell is the basic unit of life.
- 2. All living things are made up of cells
- 3. New cells arise only from preexisting Cells
4.2b Surface aarea to volume relationships
What is Surface-area to-volume ratio?
- Requires cells to stay small.
- 1. A cell needs a surface area large enough to allow sufficient nutrients to enter and to rid itself of wastes.
- 2.Actively metabolizing ceslls need to be smal.
- A chicken egg is large but is not actively metabolizing.
- 3. Cells that specialize in absorption have modifiations to increase the surface-area to volume ratio.
Compound light Microscope
- Multiple leses increase magnifying power
- 1. a condenser lens focuses light through specimen.
- 2. an objective lense magnifies the specimens image
- 3. An ocular lens magnifies the image into the eye.
More magnifying power than light.
Transmission electron Microscope
Passes electrons through Specimen.
Comparison of three microspes.
Comparison of three microscopes
- Lack of membrane-bound nucleus
- Smaller than eukaryotic cells
- 2 Domains.
Domain and Domain archaea
- DNA evidence
- Biochemical differences.
Eukaryotic Cells are much larger than prokaryotic cells.
Prokaryotic cell structure
- Lack a membrane-bound nucleus
- full of cytoplasm bound by plasma membrane
- Ribosomes for protein synthesis
- Long looped chromosome found in NUCLEOID
- Reproduce by splitting in two
Prokaryotic Cell Structure
- Cyanobacteria can photsynthesize
- cell wall outside plasma membrane
- May have PILL (attachment) or FLAGELLA (movement)
Prokayarotic cell structure
- Domain Eukarya
- Divide into protists,plants fungi and animals.
Divided into protists, plants, fungi and animals.
Compartmentalized into ?
Organells: perform specific functions.
Bounded by plasma.
- Cells are rich in membrane.
- Most organells are membranouse
- Anmail VS. Plants Cells.
Animal plant table
- TABLE 4.4
- Animal and Plant Cell Differences
- Structure Animal Cell Plant Cell
- Cell wall No Yes
- Chloroplast No YES
- Lysosomes YES NO
- Centrioles YES NO
- Large central vacuole No YES
- Shap Round Rectangular
Is a Major Function of Cells
What is Chromatin?
Net work of strans that condenses to form chromosomes.
Dark region of Chromatin where ribosomal RNA (rRna)subunits made Nuclear envelop.
- Sepeartes the nucleus from cytoplasm
- Double membrane
- Nuclear pores to permit passage of ribsomal sub units.
- Non-membrane-bound particles where protein synthesis occurs.
- Found in both prokaryotes and sukaryotes
- Made of 2 sub units
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
Some float free in cytoplasm others attached to (ER).
Messenger mRNA (mRNA)
Is a copy of a gene that tells a cell how to make the particular polypeptide of protien at a ribosome.
Physically continous with the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope?
- Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
- Consists of membranous tubles and flattened sacs.
Rough Er (RER)
- studded with ribosomes
- Proteins modiefied inside
- no attach ribosomes
- Lipeds synthesis, detofication