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What are Cells:
Basic Units of Life
What is the Cell Theory?
1. A cell is the basic unit of life.
2. All living things are made up of cells
3. New cells arise only from preexisting Cells
4.2b Surface aarea to volume relationships
What is Surface-area to-volume ratio?
Requires cells to stay small.
1. A cell needs a surface area large enough to allow sufficient nutrients to enter and to rid itself of wastes.
2.Actively metabolizing ceslls need to be smal.
A chicken egg is large but is not actively metabolizing.
3. Cells that specialize in absorption have modifiations to increase the surface-area to volume ratio.
Compound light Microscope
Multiple leses increase magnifying power
1. a condenser lens focuses light through specimen.
2. an objective lense magnifies the specimens image
3. An ocular lens magnifies the image into the eye.
More magnifying power than light.
Transmission electron Microscope
Passes electrons through Specimen.
Comparison of three microspes.
Comparison of three microscopes
Lack of membrane-bound nucleus
Smaller than eukaryotic cells
Eukaryotic Cells are much larger than prokaryotic cells.
Prokaryotic cell structure
Lack a membrane-bound nucleus
full of cytoplasm bound by plasma membrane
Ribosomes for protein synthesis
Long looped chromosome found in
Reproduce by splitting in two
Prokaryotic Cell Structure
Cyanobacteria can photsynthesize
cell wall outside plasma membrane
Prokayarotic cell structure
Divide into protists,plants fungi and animals.
Divided into protists, plants, fungi and animals.
Compartmentalized into ?
Organells: perform specific functions.
Bounded by plasma.
Cells are rich in membrane.
Most organells are membranouse
Anmail VS. Plants Cells.
Animal plant table
Animal and Plant Cell Differences
Structure Animal Cell Plant Cell
Cell wall No Yes
Chloroplast No YES
Lysosomes YES NO
Centrioles YES NO
Large central vacuole No YES
Shap Round Rectangular
Is a Major Function of Cells
What is Chromatin?
Net work of strans that condenses to form chromosomes.
Dark region of Chromatin where ribosomal RNA (rRna)subunits made Nuclear envelop.
Sepeartes the nucleus from cytoplasm
Nuclear pores to permit passage of ribsomal sub units.
Non-membrane-bound particles where protein synthesis occurs.
Found in both prokaryotes and sukaryotes
Made of 2 sub units
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
Some float free in cytoplasm others attached to (ER).
Messenger mRNA (mRNA)
Is a copy of a gene that tells a cell how to make the particular polypeptide of protien at a ribosome.
Physically continous with the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope?
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
Consists of membranous tubles and flattened sacs.
Rough Er (RER)
studded with ribosomes
Proteins modiefied inside
no attach ribosomes
Lipeds synthesis, detofication
Chapter 4 1010