Lipids and Lipoproteins
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What is Lipids?
Any heterogenous group of fats and fat-like substance that is water-insoluble and extractable by solvents such as alcohol, ether, benzene, ect
Lipids is commonly referred to as ?
Lipids is a rich source of energy and an efficient way for what?
the body to store excess calories
Lipids plays an important structural role in what?
What are 4 classes of Lipids?
- -fatty acids
Fatty acids are linear chain of carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bonds that terminate with what group?
carboxyl group (-COOH)
Straight chain compounds with even number of carbon are what type of acids?
most dietary fatty acids
Some fatty acids are not all fully saturated with what type of atoms?
Hydrogen; some form carbon-carbon (C=C) bonds
The number of double-bonds in the molecule are depended on what?
How many bonds does a saturated fatty acid have?
No double bonds
How many bonds does a monounsaturated fatty acid have?
One double bond
How many bonds does a polyunsaturated fatty acid have?
2 or more double bonds
Which lipid contains Glycerol(alcohol) + 3 fatty acids?
Triglycerides allow for ____ energy storage within the body.
Source of triglycerides can be either?
exogenous or endogenous
Triglycerides can be transported by what?
Chylomicrons and Very Low Density Lipoproteins (VLDL)
Triglycerides provide insulation to what?
vital organs in form of fat deposits in adipose cells
What promotes triglycerides breakdown when the cells need energy glucose stores have been depleted?
Epinephrine and Cortisol(adrenal)
Which lipid is unsaturated steroid alcohol of molecular weight?
Cholesterol consist of how many rings and carbon atoms?
4 rings(perhydrocyclopentathroline) and a side chain of 8
Cholesterol is not readily what by most cells?
Cholesterol is found exclusively in what?
Cholesterol uses what?
- -manufacture and repair of cell membrane
- -synthesis and repair of bile acids and vitamin D.
- -precursor of 5 major classes of steroid hormones
Name the 5 major classes of steroid hormones.
Unsaturated steroid alcohol contains how many rings and chain tail?
4 rings, it has a single C-H side chain tail
In phospholipids, amphipathic contains what?
both polar hydrophilic group and hydrophobic fatty side chain
Phospholipids is formed by what?
the conjugation of 2 fatty acids and a phosphate functional group
Phospholipids acts as what?
Phospholipids are particularly suited to serve as what?
major constituent of biologic interfaces, such as cell memebrane and the outer shells of lipoproteins
Cell membranes are made mostly of what?
phospholipids arranged in double layer w/ the tails "inside" and the heads facing "out"
Phopholipids arranged in double layer occurs when exposed to what?
an aqueous environment
What is any of the lipid-protein complexes in which lipids are transported in the blood stream?
Lipoproteins is what shape and size?
typically spherical and range from 10-1200nm
What is composed of both lipids and proteins?
Apoproteins is primarily located on the surface of what?
Apoprotein help maintain what?
structural intergrity of lipoproteins
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