unit 2 definitions.txt

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unit 2 definitions.txt
2012-02-07 13:24:10
Ex Phys unit word definitions

Ex Phys unit 2 word definitions
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  1. What is aerobic glycolysis?
    Pyruvate is the end product of glycolysis, and carb catabolism couples further breakdown to form ATP. Slower process resulting in more ATP. Happens in the cytoplasm
  2. What is anaerobic glycolysis?
    Glycolysis where lactic acid is the end result. Rapid but limited ATP production. "Rapid glycolysis" Requires maximal effort for 90 seconds. Happens in the cytoplasm
  3. What is oxidation?
    A molecule (carb, lipid, & protein) that gives up the electron. "Biologic Burning"
  4. What is a Coenzyme?
    Complex non-protein substance that facilitates enzyme action by binding the substrate with its specific enzyme. -dormant enzyme without activation by additional substances. "coenzyme"
  5. What is coupled reactions?
    During the breakdown of macronutrient energy molecules, the breakdown of one compound provides energy for building another compound. Occurs in pairs
  6. What is entropy?
    Tendency of decreased capacity to perform work; tendency of potential energy to degrade to kinetic energy of motion with a lower capacity for work. A measure of randomness or disorder; that fraction of energy (heat) content not available for work usually because it has been used to increase random motion of atoms or molecules in a system
  7. What is an enzyme?
    A highly specific and large protein catalyst, accelerates the forward and reverse rates of chemical reactions within the body without being consumed or changed in the reaction.Govern reaction that would normally take place but at a much slower rate.
  8. What is glycogenolysis?
    Glycogen is converted to glucose. Occurs in the cells cytoplasm.Happens during the first stage of rapid glycolysis.
  9. What is lipolysis?
    When a triacylglycerol breaks down to glycerol and 3 water insoluble fatty acid molecules :Triaclyglycerol + 3 H2O > Lipase> Glycerol + 3 Fatty Acids
  10. What is an oxidative reaction?
    The donation of electrons. Couples with reduction because every oxidation coincides with a reduction.
  11. What is a reduction reaction?
    Accepting electrons. Shares with oxidative reaction.
  12. What is alactacid oxygen debt?
    (fast) portion of recovery oxygen that restores the intramuscular high-energy phosphates ATP and PCr and reloads muscles myoglobin and blood's hemoglobin.
  13. What is blood lactate threshold?
    Aka onset of blood lactate accumulation or OBLA. Point of abrupt increase in blood lactate. Occurs at a higher percentage of an endurance athlete's VO2 max
  14. What is EPOC?
    AKA Excess Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption or recovery oxygen uptake. Excess oxygen uptake about the resting level in recovery. Total oxygen consumed after exercise in excess of a pre-exercise baseline level.
  15. What is lactacid oxygen debt?
    (slow) portion of recovery oxygen that represents reconversion of lactate to liver glycogen.
  16. What is maximal oxygen uptake?
    VO2 Max. the highest oxygen uptake achieved despite increases in exercise intensity. VO2 max indicates an individual's capacity to aerobically resynthese ATP.
  17. What is steady-rate?
    A balance between energy required by the body and the rate of aerobic ATP production. A plateau of oxygen uptake.
  18. What is direct calorimetry?
    asses human energy metabolism by measuring heat production similarly to the method for determining the energy value of foods in the bomb calorimeter.
  19. What is indirect calorimetry?
    all energy-reactions in the body ultimately depend on the use of oxygen. By measuring a person's oxygen uptake, researchers obtain an indirect yet accurate estimate of energy expenditure. Closed-circuit and open-circuit spirometer represent the two methods of indirect calorimetry.
  20. What is respiratory exchange ratio?
    ratio of the volume of carbon dioxide expired to the volume of oxygen consumed on a total body level.
  21. What is respiratory quotient?
    the ratio of amount of CO2 produced to amount of O2 consumed at the cellular level.
  22. What is basal metabolic rate?
    The rate of minimum energy requirements that sustains the body's function in the waking state. Can be measured through oxygen uptake while under certain conditions: NPO for 12 hrs, no undue muscular exersion for 12 hrs, measured after person has been lying quietly for 30-60 minutes in a dimly lit, temp controlled room.
  23. What is dietary induced thermogenesis?
    AKA thermic effect of food. Consuming food increases energy metabolism from the energy-requiring processes of digesting, absorbing and assimilating nutrients.
  24. What is mechanical efficiency?
    applies when one requires specific rates of work and speed or in nutritional studies that features energy expenditures over extended durations.
  25. What is MET?
    oxygen uptake and kilocalories commonly express differences in exercise intensity. As an alternative, a convenient way to express exercise intensity classifies physical effort as multiples of resting energy expenditure, with a unit less measure. Which is why MET was developed.- one MET represents an adult's average seated resting oxygen consumption or energy expenditure.