ch 40 review

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Siobhan
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133520
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ch 40 review
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2012-02-07 14:19:04
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40 review
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ch 40 review
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  1. In the knee joint shown in the figure, what would the result be if the quadriceps failed to function?
    • The leg wouldnt straighten.
    • The leg wouldnt bend.
    • The hip wouldnt bend.
    • The hip wouldnt straighten.

  2. What is the difference between the three types of muscle?
    • They are all striated, but have different functions.
    • The heart muscle is unique in appearance and function compared to the other types of muscle.
    • They all contract and relax under voluntary control, but appear different.
    • They have different characteristics, functions, and mechanisms of control.

  3. Which part of the muscle cell is responsible for the storage of calcium ions to aid in muscle contraction?
    • Myofilbril
    • Sarcoplasmic reticulum
    • T tubule
    • Plasma membrane

  4. What is needed to stimulate muscle contraction?
    • As one muscle cell contracts, it stimulates the next one to contract.
    • Muscle cells release neurotransmitters from one cell to the next through gap junctions.
    • An action potential from a motor neuron stimulates a group of muscle fibers to contract at the same time.
    • The firing of a sensory neuron causes the muscle cells in a group of muscles fibers to contract at the same time.

  5. When a person dies, their muscles become stiff and experience rigor mortis. Why do the muscles stiffen?
    • Without ATP, calcium remains in the cytoplasm, causing myosin to continuously bind to actin.
    • Without calcium, ATP remains in the cytoplasm, causing myosin to permanently bind to actin.
    • The sarcoplasmic reticulum can no longer release calcium ions, keeping the myosin from binding to the actin.
    • Without ATP, the myosin heads cannot bind to the actin.

  6. Why are some people destined to be world class marathoners while most are not?
    • Successful marathoners build increased amounts of muscle cells early in life that remain later in life.
    • At anytime, a person can train and build muscle to become a world class athlete.
    • World class marathoners are genetically predisposed to possess a higher proportion of slow twitch muscle fibers.
    • World class marathoners have more fast twitch muscle, whereas most people have more slow twitch muscle.

  7. Why do all of the cells of the heart beat simultaneously?
    • Numerous motor neurons are connected to each muscle cell and simultaneously send action potentials.
    • The sarcoplasmic reticulum of heart muscles are always open to allow for myosin heads to bend and move over actin.
    • Gap junctions between the muscle cells allow action potentials to spread rapidly across the cells of the heart.
    • An action potential is generated simultaneously in each muscle cell of the heart.

  8. What characteristic links the three types of skeletons?
    • All are composed of bone or cartilage.
    • All have connections to blood flow.
    • All have muscles attached for movement of the body.
    • All are the main support system of the body.

  9. Which of the following is NOT a function of the vertebrate skeleton?
    • Framework of support
    • Movement
    • Encloses the body
    • Produces blood cells

  10. What is one reason that joints ache as people get older?
    • The bone wears down and grinds against itself.
    • Years of overuse causes all the blood vessels to break down and lose their function of delivering oxygen and taking away waste products, causing pain.
    • Bone grinds on bone due to a lack of cushioning cartilage because the repair process of cartilage is slow or nonexistent.
    • As you get older, active bone cells that replace joint tissue are broken down faster than they can be replaced.

  11. A babys head molds into a cone shape when it is coming out of the birth canal, but hardens later in life because:
    • Soft cartilage is broken down by osteocytes and replaced with bone by osteoblasts.
    • Soft cartilage is broken down by osteoclasts and replaced with bone by osteoblasts.
    • Soft cartilage is broken down by osteoblasts and replaced with bone by osteoclasts.
    • Soft cartilage is broken down by osteocytes and replaced with bone by osteoclasts.

  12. How are smooth muscles like cardiac muscle?
    • Their cells have multiple nuclei.
    • Their cells are striated in appearance.
    • The appearance of the cells is not striated.
    • The cells contract in unison.

  13. Why might the hand you generally use to control your video games have denser bone than the other hand?
    • One hand is genetically programmed to have more bone.
    • Increased muscle use causes an increased use of calcium and builds up the bone.
    • Osteoclasts build up bone where there is increased muscle use.
    • Bone mass builds up with increased use and weight bearing activities.

  14. What would be the first event that occurs when a bone breaks?
    • Osteoblasts secrete a callus.
    • Nonspecific external barriers take charge.
    • Osteoclasts devour cartilage while osteoblasts form new bone.
    • Nonspecific internal defense mechanisms target the damaged tissue.

  15. In the knee joint shown in the figure, what would the result be if the quadriceps failed to function?
    • The leg wouldnt straighten.
    • The leg wouldnt bend.
    • The hip wouldnt bend.
    • The hip wouldnt straighten.

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