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How can sponges survive without a circulatory system?
- They live for a short time and then die because of a lack of circulatory system.
- The cells have a short life span and are constantly being replaced through mitosis.
- Sponges have specialized circulatory tissue instead of circulatory organs.
- Seawater delivers nutrients and oxygen directly to the cells by circulating through the sponge’s pores.
Why is it important for the blood vessels to continuously branch?
- Branching promotes efficient gas exchange across the vessel walls.
- Branching creates a pressure system for the exchange of gases, nutrients, and waste.
- Branching ensures that each cell is reached by the circulatory system.
- Branching ensures that every heart is being used efficiently.
Why is an open circulatory system less efficient than a closed circulatory system?
- It is more difficult to extract nutrients and remove waste when they are in the same compartment.
- The blood pressure is higher in an open system, forcing the blood around the body too quickly for nutrients to be delivered and wastes to be picked up.
- Blood flows around the body at a constant rate in an open system.
- In an open system, blood is contained in a continuous series of vessels, making it more difficult to distribute nutrients.
Which of the following shows the circulatory systems in order from least to most evolved?
- Birds and mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish
- Fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals
- Amphibians, fish, reptiles, birds and mammals
- Reptiles, amphibians, fish, birds and mammals
- Carry oxygenated blood.
- Carry deoxygenated blood.
- Carry blood away from the heart.
- Carry blood toward the heart.
Which describes the correct flow of blood returned to the heart by the vena cavas?
- Vena cavas, right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary veins, lungs, pulmonary arteries, left atrium, left ventricle, aorta
- Vena cavas, right atrium, right ventricle, pulmonary arteries, lungs, pulmonary veins, left atrium, left ventricle, aorta
- Vena cavas, left atrium, left ventricle, pulmonary veins, lungs, pulmonary arteries, right atrium, right ventricle, aorta
- Vena cavas, left atrium, left ventricle, pulmonary arteries, lungs, pulmonary veins, right atrium, right ventricle, aorta
A stroke results from a:
- Heart attack in the brain.
- Blood clot in the heart.
- Blood clot in the brain.
- Blood clot in the leg.
Which of the following is an example of a healthy blood pressure reading?
- Diastolic of 120 and systolic of 80
- Diastolic of 140 and systolic of 90
- Diastolic of 80 and systolic of 120
- Diastolic of 90 and systolic of 140
Rheumatic fever damages the valves of the heart. This is dangerous because:
- Blood will leak backwards through the heart.
- It can cause hardening of the coronary arteries.
- It can cause high blood pressure.
- It can cause an irregular heartbeat.
Why is there a slight delay between atrial and ventricular contractions?
- It takes a brief time for the signal from the AV node to reach the SA node.
- It takes a brief time for the blood to be transferred from the ventricles to the atria.
- It takes a brief time for the signal from the SA node to reach the AV node.
- It takes a brief time for the signal from the Purkinje fibers to reach the AV node
Mature red blood cells lack nuclei. How are new red blood cells generated?
- Red blood cells have evolved a mechanism to undergo mitosis even though they do not have a nucleus.
- Red blood cells are generated in the bone marrow from stem cells that have nuclei.
- Red blood cells are generated by the hemoglobin.
- Red blood cells are made by capillaries in the lungs where they can directly receive the oxygen they need.
Anemia could directly influence which metabolic process?
- Cellular respiration
Why would an increase in erythropoietin be beneficial to an athlete?
- It enhances their ability to produce lactic acid.
- It prevents the production of lactic acid in their muscles.
- It enhances the ability of their red blood cells to carry oxygen.
- It increases the production of red blood cells.
What mechanism helps promote the return of the blood to the heart through the veins?
- The pressure caused by the size difference between the capillaries and veins forces blood back to the heart.
- Gravity acts to send blood from the veins back to the heart.
- Valves force the blood to move in one direction through the veins back toward the heart.
- Veins contract continuously, sending blood back to the heart.
People who have been trapped in an avalanche or fallen though ice often lose their nose, fingers, and toes. Why does this happen?
- The blood freezes in these areas, causing the tissue to die.
- In extreme cold, the blood is directed to the vital organs in the trunk of the body and around the brain.
- The skin is thinner in these areas and does not sufficiently protect against the cold.
- Only veins are located in these areas and most of the heat from the body core has already been distributed by the time the blood arrives to these extremities.
Which of the following is not part of the lymphatic system?
- Lymph capillaries and vessels
Which of the following is not a function of the lymphatic system?
- To carry fats from the small intestine to the bloodstream
- To filter the blood of toxins and excess vitamins and drugs
- To harbor white blood cells to help protect the body from foreign invaders
- To restore extra fluid from the tissues back into the circulatory system
Elephantiasis results when interstitial fluids in tissues can’t be returned to the circulatory system. What symptoms would this cause?
- High blood pressure
- Low blood pressure
- Swelling in the lower extremities
- Breaking down of the connective tissue