Psychology & Counseling - Test 1

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  1. Psychology
    Study of behavior
  2. Mission of psychology
    • Understand behavior & mental processes
    • Predict their course (predict behavior)
  3. Psychological Counseling
    Assistance to people who need guidance on temporary problems like school difficulties, choice of vocation, marriage
  4. Diagnoses of more deep-seated psychology problems and treatment of such problems through psychotherapy
    Clinical psychology
  5. Community psychology is study of
    Social environment & how it could better serve human needs
  6. Environmental psychology deals with
    Ecological problems, smog, water polution, overcrowding & noise
  7. Industrial psychology
    Selection & training of employees & study of workers' morale & cooperation
  8. Comparative psychologists
    Compare behavior of different species - relating other animal behavior patterns to those found in humans
  9. Physiological psychologist
    • Seek information about stucture & functioning of body & brain
    • Examine chemical substances that influence nervous systems & emotions
  10. Developmental psychologists study
    • How individuals grow & change throughout their existence
    • Personality & social psychologists - how ppl differ in their enduring inner characteristics & traits, how they influence and are influenced by others
  11. Forensic psychologists work on
    Behavioral issues important in legal, judicial, and correctional systems
  12. Funeral service psychology
    Study of psychological theories, principles and applications as related to funeral service
  13. Differnt methods used in psychology
    Naturalistic observation, participant observation, interviews, case histories, questionnaires, tests & measurements, experiments
  14. Measurements of central tendency
    Mean, median, mode, range
  15. Statistical comparisons (mean, median, mode) allow for establishment of ____ or averages and are typically used as basis for comparison
  16. Experimental method of psychology
    Examining impact of independent variable upon a dependent variable
  17. Significance of philosophy for psychology
    Psychology was originally part of philosophy (seeks to know essential nature of universe)
  18. Wilhelm Wundt
    Founded first modern laboratory of western psychology in 1879
  19. Behaviorism; who is assoiciated with it
    • Studying conduct in terms of stimulus-response model
    • John Watson & B.F. Skinner
  20. Gestalt psychology
    Studying events as a "whole" pattern or configuration rather than separate parts
  21. Cognitive psychology
    • Mental processes with stimulus-response model by looking at information processing
    • Learning, remembering, forgetting
  22. Humanistic psychology
    Values & goals that differentiate humans from other life forms as part of animal kingdom
  23. Associated with humansitic psychology
    Carl Rogers & Abraham Maslow
  24. Self-actulization theory
    People will always pursue highest & most idealistic aims unless their development is warped by malevolent social environment
  25. Major question that comes up in all aspects pf psychology (nature vs nurture)
    To what extent is human behavior determined by genetic (Nature) and to what extent by environment factors (Nurture)
  26. Self-actualization in relation to Maslow pyramid
  27. Order of Maslow's pyramid of needs from lowest to highest
    • Physiological
    • Safety & Security
    • Belonging & love
    • Esteem
    • Self-actualization
  28. ____ and its sequal of grief, mourning, restitution, or depletion are an integral part of human experince
  29. Until recently, Western societies have been described as
    Death denying
  30. Physical underpinning of psychology
    Body & Brain
  31. Cerebral cortex is responsible for
    Thinking & remembering
  32. ______ of which cortex is outer part, forms the bulk of brain
  33. Describe Hypothalamus
    Center for emotional behavior and plays part in homeostasis
  34. Corpus callosum
    Thick cable of interconnecting brain (neurons) connecting the two hemispheres of brain
  35. Right hemisphere of brain
    • Deals with left of body
    • Specializes in information about form, space, music, entire patterns
  36. Synapses
    Microscopic distances, between neurons across which chemical neurotransmitters flow
  37. Autonomic nervous system
    • Controls over glands, heart muscles and muscles of bodys organs and blood vessels
    • Helps regulate breathing, heart rate, blood pressure and digestion
    • Parasympathetic and sympathetic
  38. Endocrine glands
    Influence behavior by secreting chemicals called hormones into blood stream
  39. Pituitary gland
    Controls growth, causes sexual development at puberty and regulates other glands
  40. Thyroid gland
    Regulates metabolism and affects body's activity level
  41. Adrenal glands secrete
    • Adrenaline and nor-adrenaline as well as number of other hormones
    • Top of kidneys
    • Fight or fleight reaction
  42. Sometimes called "emotional brain"
    • Limbic system
    • Primary role in range of emotions, uncluding pain, pleasure, docility, affection, anger
  43. Responsible for number of essential body processes like breathing and heart beat
  44. Makes up outlying neurons throughout body
    Peripheral nervous system
  45. Central Nervouse System consists of
    Brain and Spinal cord
  46. Learning
    Any relatively permanent change in behavior produced by experience
  47. Rule of operant conditioning
    Behavior which is reinforced by reward tends to be repeated
  48. Often used as negative reinforcement
  49. Another word for Cognition
  50. Phonemes
    Basic sounds of language
  51. Semantics
    Meaning of language's morphemes and words
  52. Vocabulary
    Set of sounds and words with meanings dictated by semantics and grammar
  53. Grammar
    Rules for putting sounds and words together
  54. Part of grammar that governs sentence structure
  55. Active processing
    Try to recognize sounds, identify words, look for syntactic patterns and search for semantic meaning
  56. Most words represent
  57. One form of thinking is by _____ or drawing logical conclusions from facts already known
  58. Pitfalls in problem solving might include
    Thinking what we would like to think rather than what facts dictate, taking too much for granted, persistence of set, functional fixedness
  59. Creativity
    Scorns tried and true, does not get imprisoned by persistence of set by seeks out new ideas even in face of failure, ridicule or loss
  60. Intelligence
    Capacity to understand world and resourcefulness to cope with its challengs or skill at infomation processing
  61. Who defined intelligence as totality of mental processes involved in adapting to the environment
    Alfred Binet
  62. Piaget said about intellectual develpment
    Basically an increased ability to adapt to new situations
  63. Two key processes in development
    • Assimilation
    • Accommodation
  64. According to Piaget, what are intellectual development stages and corresponding ages
    • Sensorimotor (birth-2)
    • Preoperational (2-7)
    • Concrete operations (7-11)
    • Formal gerations (beginning at 11 or 12)
  65. Grollman
    • Reviewed ways children experience death in light of stages of intellectual development
    • Recommended different strategies for helping children cope with death at different stages
  66. According to Grollman, what is child's understanding of death from birth to age 3
    No comprehension
  67. According to Grollman, what is child's understanding of death from age 3 - 5
    • Unable to understand finality of death
    • Like sleep
  68. According to Grollman, what is child's understanding of death at age 5 - 9
    May understand death is final but may not accept it as something that happens to everyone
  69. According to Grollman, what is child's understanding of death once they are 9 years old and beyond
    Understand death as final and inevitable
  70. Achievement tests measure
    How much skill or learning a person has actually acquired
  71. Type of test measures ability to learn new skill or perform unfamiliar task
    Intelligence tests
  72. To qualify as scientifically sound a test should be
    Objective, Reliable, Valid (Standardized)
  73. Objective
    Subject will receive same score regardless of who administers and scores test
  74. Can be said about test when similar scores are achieved by same person when tested on different occasions
    It's reliable
  75. Valid
    Measure what it is intended to measure
  76. Standardized
    Pretested on large and representative sample so that individuals score can be interpreted by comparison with scores of other people
  77. Term German psychologist L. Wilhelm Stern coined
    Intelligence quotient (IQ)
  78. Vocational aptitude tests
    Measure ability to perform special tasks required in special jobs
  79. Interest inventory
    • Measure how much individual likes or dislikes various activities
    • Provides clue to what sort of job might by most congenial
  80. Responses to loss (death) are shaped in part by what has been learning from others
  81. Short term memory has capacity of how many items
  82. Bereavement
    "Event" of loss
  83. Mourning
    "Period" or "Process" of adjustment following loss
  84. Grief
    "Emotional" response to loss
  85. Stimulus
    Some form of meaningful energy empinging on body
  86. Structure capable of responding to particular stimulus
  87. To activate sensory receptor, stimulus must be above
    Absolute threshold
  88. Pupil is an opening in
  89. Retina
    Receptors for vision-nerve endings called rods and cones
  90. Rods of eye
    Function under low illumination (dim-lit) and send information to brain about movements and about whites, grays, blacks (NOT color)
  91. Cones of eye
    Function in stron illumination and send information to brain about movements and brightness and color
  92. Perception is process through which we become aware of our environment by ___,___, and ___ stimuli impinging upon or sense
    • Selecting
    • Organizing
    • Interpreting
  93. Altered states of consiousness
    Sleep, hypnosis and changes produced by medication or drugs (chemical means)
  94. Stimulants
    Nicotine, caffine, amphetamines, MDMA, cocaine, NRIs & NDRIs, modafinil, ampakines, yohimbine
  95. Sedatives
    Barbiturates, Quaaludes, Seconals, alcohol
  96. Narcotics
    Heroin, morphine, codeine
  97. Personality test
    Measure traits that make up personality and to distinguish between normal and neurotic patterns
Card Set:
Psychology & Counseling - Test 1

Test 1
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