Anthropology ch1

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Anthropology ch1
2012-02-07 19:13:02
anthropology ch1

anthropology ch1
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  1. Savanna (h)
    a large flat grassland with scattered treesand shrubs. savannas are found in many regions of the world with dry and warm, to hot dry climates.
  2. Hominins
    colloquial term for members of the evouloutionary group that includes modern humans and now extinct bipedal relatives.
  3. Bipedally
    On two feet. Walking habitually on two legs
  4. Species
    A group of organisms that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring. Members of one species are reproductively isolated from members of all other species ( they cannot mate with them to produce fertile offspring)
  5. Anthropology
    The field of inquiry that studies human culture and evolutionary aspects of human biology, includes cultural anthropology, archaeology, linguistics and physical or biological, anthropology.
  6. Primates
    members of the mammalian order Primates include lemures, lorises, tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans
  7. Evolution
    A change in the genetic structure of a population. the term is also frequently used to refer to the appearance of a new species.
  8. Adaptation
    An anatomical, physiological, or behavioral response to organisms or populations to the environment. Adaptations result from evolutionary change. ( as a result of natural selection.)
  9. Genetic
    Having to do with the study of gene structure and action and the patterns of inheritance traits from parent to offspring. Genetic mechanisms are the -Foundation- for evolutionary change.
  10. Culture
    Behavioral aspects of human adaptation, - including- technology, traditions, language, religion, marriage patterns, and social roles. Culture is a set of learned behaviors transmitted from one generation to the next by nonbiological (non genetic) means
  11. Worldview
    general cultural orientation of perspective shared by members of a society.
  12. Behavior
    Anything organisms do that involves action in response to external or internal stimuli, the response of an individual, group, or species to itd environment. Such responses may or may not be deliberate, and they arent necessarily the result of conscious decision making ( which is absent in single-celled organisms, insects and many other species.)
  13. Biocultural Evolution
    the mutual interactive evolution of human biology and culture, the concept that biology makes culture possible and that developing culturefurther influences the direction of biological evolution, a basic concept in understanding the unique components of human evolution.
  14. Applied Anthropology
    the practical application of anthropological and archaeological theories and techniques. For example, many biological anthropologists work in the public health sector.
  15. Ethnographies
    detailed descriptive studies of human societies. In cultural anthropology, ethnography is traditionally the study of non western society.
  16. Artifacts
    Objects or materials made or modified for use by homonins. the earliest artifacts are usually tools made of stone or occasionally, bone.
  17. Paleoanthropology
    the interdisciplinary approach to the study of earlier hominin- their chronology, physical structure, archaology remains, habitats and so on.
  18. Primate Paleontology
    The study of fossil primates, especially those that lived before the appearance of hominins.
  19. Anthropometry
    Measurement of human body parts.When osteologists measure skeletal element, the term osteometry is often used.
  20. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
    The double-stranded molecule that contains the genetic code, DNA is a main component of chromosomes.
  21. Osteology
    The study of skeletal material. Human osteology focuses on the interpretation of the skeletal remains from archaelogical sites, skeletal anatomy, bone physiology, and growth and developement. some of the same techniques are used in paleoanthropology to study early hominins.
  22. bioarchaeology
    The study of skeletal remains from archaelogical sites.
  23. Paleopathology
    The branch of osteology that studies the evidence of disease and injury in human skeletal ( or, occasionally, mumified) remains from archaelogical sites.
  24. Forensic Anthropology
    An applied anthropological approach dealing with legal matters. Forensic Anthropologists work with coroners and others in identifying and analyzing human remains.
  25. Primatology
    The study of the biology and behavior of nonhuman primates ( lemurs,lorises,tarsiers,monkeys,and apes.)
  26. Science
    A body of knowledge gained through observation and experimentation from the latin( scientia) meaning knowledge.
  27. Hypothesis
    A provisional explanation of a phenomenon. Hypotheses require verification or falsification through testing.
  28. Empirical
    relying on experiment or observation, from the latin empiricus, meaning "experienced."
  29. Scientific Method
    An approach to research whereby a problem is identified, a hypothesis ( provisional explanation) is stated, and the hypothesis is tested by collecting and analyzing data.
  30. Data
    (datum) facts from which conclusions ca be drawn, scientific information
  31. Quantitatively
    Pertaining to measurements of quantity and including such properties as size, number and capacity. When data are quantified theyre expressed numerically and can be tested statistically.
  32. Theory
    A broad statement of scientific relationships or underlying principles that has been substantially verified through the testing if hypotheses
  33. Scientific Testing
    The precise repetition of an experiment or expansion of observed data to provide verification, the procedure by which hypotheses and theories are verified, modified or discarded.
  34. pg 25 for ch1 summary