Anthropology ch2

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Anthropology ch2
2012-02-07 20:11:25
Anthropology Ch2

Anthropology Ch2
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  1. Natural selection
    The most critical mechanism of evolutionary change, first decribed by Charles Darwin, refers to genetic change or changes in the frequencies in certain traits i population due to differential reproductive success between individuals.
  2. Fixity of species
    The notion that species, once created, can never change an idea, diametrically opposed to theories of biological evolution.
  3. Reproductively Isolated
    Pertaining to groups of organisms that, mainly because of genentic differences, are prevented from mating and producing offspring with members of other such groups. For example, dogs cannot mate and produce offspring with cats.
  4. Binomial Nomenclature
    ( binomial meaning two names) In taxonomy, the convention established by Carolus Linnaeus whereby genus and species . For example homo sapiens refers to human species.
  5. Taxonomy
    The branch of science concerned with the rules of classifying organisms on the Basis of evolutionary relationships.
  6. Catastrophism
    The view that the eearths geological lanscapes is the result of violent cataclysmic events. "Cuvier" promoted this view, especially in oposition to Lamarck.
  7. Uniformitarianism
    the theory that the earths features are the result of long-term processes that continue to operate in the present just as they did in the past. Elaborated on by "Lyell" , this theory oposed catastrophism), and contributed strongly to the concept of immense geological time.
  8. Fitness
    Pertaining to natural selection, a measure of the relative reproductive success of inividuals. Fitness can be measured by an individuals genetic contribution to the next generation compared with that of other individuals, The terms genetic fitness, reproducticve fitness, and differential reproductive success are also used.
  9. reproductive success
    The number of offspring an individual produces and rears to reproductive age, an individuals genetic contribution to the next generation.
  10. Selective pressures
    Forces in the environment that influence reproductive success in individuals.
  11. Fertility
    The ability to concieve and produce healthy offspring.
  12. Genome
    The entire genetic makeup of an individual species.
  13. Biological continuity
    A biological continuum. When expressions of a phenomenon continuosly grade into another so that there are no discrete categories, they exist on a continuum. Color is one such phenomenon, and life forms are another.
  14. Christian Fundamentalists
    Adherants to a movement in american protestantism that began in the early 20th century. this group holds that the teachings of the bible are infallible and that scriptures are to be taken literally.
  15. page 49 detail about ch2
  16. anthro