description "Political Science - Professor Jahal- Understanding American Government Fifth edition"
fileName "Political Science - Chapter two"
The belief in limiting power by a written charter.
What is the Articles of Confederation?
The first plan of the national government of the thirteen American states, which were replaced by the constitution. Under articles, that states retained most political power.
What is Shay's rebellion?
A revolt by Massachusetts farmers in 1786-1787 over the lack of economic relief. The rebellion led many to believe that a stronger central government was necessary.
What was the Annapolis Convention?
The meeting of delegates from five states in Annapolis, Maryland, in 1786 to consider a common policy for trade among the American states that resulted in a recommendation for a constitutional convention the following year.
What is the Northwest Ordinance?
This major statute enacted by congress in 1787 under the Article of Confederation, providing for the development and government of lands west of Pennslyvannia.
What was the Virginia Plan?
The first plan of the union proposed at the constitional convention in 1787, it called for a strong central government.
What was the New Jersey plan?
Introduced in the constitutional convention in opposition to the Virginia plan; it emphasized the dominance of the states.
What was the Great Compromise?
Agreement at the constitutional convention in 1787 to accept representation by population in the house and by states in the senate. Sometimes called the Connecticut compromise because it was arranged by the delegation from Connecticut.
What was the three-fifths compromise?
A temporary resolution to the controversy over slavery, this agreement allowed slaveholding states to count each slave as 3/5ths of a person for purposes of congressional representation.
Who were the Federalists?
Persons who adovacated ratification of the constitution in 1787 - 1788 and generally favored a strong central government. Also, the name of the dominant political party during the administration of President George Washington and John Adams.
Who were the Antifederalist?
Persons who opposed ratification of the constitution in 1787 - 1788. In the first years of government under the constitution, Antifederalists in congress opposed policies associated with a strong central government such as a national bank.
What was the Federalist?
A series of eighty five essays written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison and published in New York newspapers in 1787 and 1788 urging ratification of the constitution.
Define Republican government.
Representative government wherein the representatives are elected by the people to make decisions in there place.
What is the Elastic Clause?
The "necessary and proper" clause of article 1, section 8, of the constitution. This clause is the source of "implied powers" for the national government, as explained in McCulloch vs. Maryland.
What is Writ of Mandamus?
Order by a court to a public official to perform a nondiscretionary or ministerial act.
What is Marbury v. Madison?
Landmark decision by the supreme court in 1803 establishing the supreme Court's power of judicial review.
What was Original Jurisdiction?
Authority of a court over cases that begin in that court. Courts of general jurisdiction have original jurisdiction over most criminal offenses. The original jurisdiction of the U.S. Supreme Court is very small.
What is Appellate Jurisdiction?
Includes cases a court receives from lower courts. The appellate jurisdiction of the U.S. Supreme Court is defined by congress.
What is Judicial Review?
The authority of courts to set aside a legislative act as being in violation of the constitution.
What was the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions?
A challenges to national supermacy, these state documents declared states to be the final authority on the meaning of the constitution.
Identify the five major functions of the constitutions.
1.) Outlines the organization of government.
2.) Grants power.
3.) A mainstay of rights.
4.) Symbol of the nation.
5.) Determines if things are Constitutional.
What is the name of Americas first constitution?
The Articles of Confederation.
Why do the Articles of Confederation read more like a treaty than a device to link component states?
Because the Americans were trying to gain their autonomy from British control. This was their way of declaring complete indepence from England.
Which features distinguished the Articles of Confederation document?
1.) The Articles preserved state autonomy.
2.) The Articles guaranteed equal representation for the states.
3.) The Articles granted the central government only a few important powers.
4.) The Articles provided for no seperate executive branch and no national courts.
5.) The Articles made amendment almost impossible.
Which groups in America wanted to revise the Articles of Confederation?
1.) Wealthy classes.
2.) Large states wanted to increase their power.
3.) Americans concerned about threats ( foreign and domestic)
What were the achievements of the Articles of Confederation?
1.) Some states paid off their debts.
2.) North west ordinance, 1787
a.) No slavery in the NW Territories
b.) Encouraged education.
What did Shay's rebellion demonstrate?
The rebellion demonstrated that the central government under the Articles was powerless to protect the nation from domestic violence.
What is the significance of the Annapolis Convention?
It resulted in a recommendation for a constitutional convention the following year. Which would lead to the Constitution of the U.S.
Which type of state favored the Virginia plan?
Which type of state favored the New Jersey plan?
What is bicameralism?
A Legislature with two chambers.
What are the elements of the Connecticut Compromise ( also know as as the great compromise)?
The elements where a combination of the Virginia plan and New Jersey plan.
What was the three-fifths compromise?
It allowed slaveholding states to count each slave as 3/5 of a person for purposes of congressional reprsentation.
How does the US constitution divide power horizontally?
Horizontally it was divided into 3 branches. Legislative, Executive, and Judicial.
How does the US Constitution divide power vertically?
National and State powers.
What are terms ( in years) of members of the House of Representative, Senate and the President?
Representatives - 2 years.
Senate - 6 years.
President - 4 years.
Who wrote the Federalist Papers? And Why?
John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison.
Because they published them in the New York Newspaper to urge ratification of the constitution.
Why did the Antifederalists oppose the Constitution written at Philadelphia Constitution?
Because they opposed a strong central government such as a national bank.
Why is it difficult to pass an amendment to the U.S Constitution?
Because the constitution only specifies two ways for its own amendment and only the first has been employed successfully. The two ways : initiation by congress and initiation by state legislatures.
Which is the most common way for an amendment to become part of the U.S constitution?
Initiation by congress.
Name some proposed amendments that failed to become part of the U.S Constitution.
District of Columbia Amendment and the Equal Rights Amendment.
What is a "lame duck"?
A member of congress that was defeated in the November elections that was left in office until after the December break to make laws.
What did the Supreme court assert in the case of Marbury v. Madison, 1803?
Establishment of the Supreme Courts power of Judicial review.
Distinguish between original and appellate jurisdiction.
Original Jurisdiction : U.S Supreme Courts jurisdiction is small because the authority of cases that begin in another court remain under their Jurisdiction.
Appellate Jurisdiction : U.S Supreme Courts jurisdiction is defined by Congress.
Why did California adopt a new constitution in 1879?
California suffered from economic depression in the 1870's. This resulted in a social discontent among workers and farmers and they demand political changes.
Which major features of California's 1879 constitution remain with us today?
Railroad reform and taxation.
Which reforms did the California Progressives pass?
5.) Nonpartisan elections.
All know as Direct democracy.
Does California have a pure direct democracy?
California is not a pure direct democracy on the model of some of the ancient Greek city-states like Athens. They have city and county.
What are the arguments for and against the initiative process in California?
The argument for is that it allows California voters to pass laws or amend the constitution if elected representatives in Sacramento fail to act in the way of the voters.
The argument against the initiative is that interest groups and increasingly politicians have captured the initiative process.