HR Chpt. 4

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  1. Work Flow Design and Organizations Structure (2)
    • 1)within an organization, units and individuals must cooperate to create outputs
    • 2)the organizations structure brings together the people who must collaborate to efficiently produce the desired outputs
    • -centralized
    • -decentralized
    • -functional
    • -product or customer
  2. Inputs
    materials, data, and information needed
  3. Activity
    tasks required in production of an output
  4. Output
    product, information, or service thats provided
  5. job analysis
    • -process of getting detailed information about jobs
    • -knowledge needed for: staffing, training, performance appraisal, and other HR activities
  6. Job description
    • -list of tasks, duties, and responsibilites (TDR's) that a particular job entails
    • -TDR's are observable actions
  7. Job Specification
    • -list of the competencies an individual must have to perform a particular job
    • -competencies are observed only when individuals are carrying out the TDR's of the job
  8. Sources of Job Information (3)
    • Incumbents-people who currently hold that position in an org. and provide accurate estimates of time
    • Observers-supervisors should review the information provided by incumbents; identify importance of job duties
    • Government-Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT), Occupational Information Network (ONET)
  9. Position Analysis Questionnaire
    • one of broadest and most researched instruments for analyzing jobs. -information input
    • -mental processes
    • -work output
    • -relationships with other people
    • -job context
  10. Fleishman System
    • results provide a picture of the ability requirements of a job
    • -asks subject matter experts to evaluate a job in terms of required abilities
    • -uses 7 point scale to assess each ability
  11. Qualitative Job Analysis Methods (4)
    • 1)interviews
    • 2)questionnaires
    • 3)observation
    • 4)participant diary/log
  12. Importance of Job Analysis (7)
    • 1)Work redesign
    • 2)HR planning
    • 3)Selection
    • 4)Training
    • 5)Performance appraisal
    • 6)Career Planning
    • 7)Job evaluation
  13. Trends in Job Analysis (5)
    • 1)todays workplace needs to be adaptable
    • 2)must detect changes that occur in jobs
    • 3)need for competency frameworks
    • 4)De-jobbing trend: viewing orgs. as having work to be done rather than jobs held by individuals
    • 5)expanded use of project based structures
  14. Approaches to Job Design (EQ): Design for Efficiency
    • Industrial Engineering study of jobs to find the simplest way to structure work in order to maximize efficiency
    • Ex: lower costs +greater output per worker, and workers are less fatigued...workers may get bored
  15. Approaches to Job Design (EQ): Design for Motivation (5)
    • 1) skill variety
    • 2)task identity
    • 3)task significance
    • 4)autonomy
    • 5)feedback
  16. Autonomy
    degree to which the job allows an individual to make decisions about the way the work will be carried out
  17. feedback
    extent to which a person receives clear information about performance effectiveness from the work itself
  18. Job Enlargement
    broadening the types of tasks performed in the job
  19. Job Extension
    • enlarging jobs by combining several relatively simple jobs to form a job with a wider range of tasks
    • EX: bank teller not only handles deposits and disbursement, but also distributes travelers checks and sells certificates of deposit.
  20. Job Rotation
    • Enlarging jobs by moving employees among several different jobs
    • EX: administrative employee might spend part of the week looking after reception area, dealing with customers and inquiries. some time might then be spent manning the telephone switchboard and then inputting data onto a database.
  21. Self Managing Work Teams (3)
    • 1)tasks assigned for self managed work teams should be complex and challenging
    • 2)should require high interdependence among team members
    • 3)tasks should have the qualities of enriched jobs
    • -stable, small, expertise, similar(diverse)
  22. Telework
    • -working from home, a growing trend
    • -Advantages: less need for office space and ability to offer greater flexibility to employees who are disabled etc.
  23. Design for Health and Safety: Ergonomics
    • 1)study of the interface between individuals physiology and the characteristics of the physical work environment
    • 2)goal is to minimize physical strain on the worker by structuring the physical work environment around the way the human body works
  24. Design for Mental Capacity: Cognitive Ergonomics
    • 1)recognizes that the mind has capabilities and limitations
    • -hire people with certain mental skills
    • -reduce info processing requirements
    • -provide easy to understand gauges and displays
    • -provide simple to operate equipment
    • -provide clear instructions
    • -employees may simplify mental demands
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HR Chpt. 4
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