Anthropology ch3

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onjimusha
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133624
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Anthropology ch3
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2012-02-07 21:44:35
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Anthropology Ch3
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Anthropology Ch3 biological basis of life
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  1. Proteins
    three dimensional molecules that serve a wide variety of functions through there ability to bind to other molecules.
  2. Nucleus
    A structure (organelle) found in all eukaryotic cells. the nucleus contains chromosomes ( nuclear DNA)
  3. Molecules
    structures made up of two or more atoms. Molecules can combine with other molecules to form more complex structures.
  4. DNA ( deoxyribonucleic acid)
    The double stranded molecule that contains genetic code. DNA is a main component of chromosomes.
  5. RNA ( Ribonucleic acid)
    A single stranded molecule similaar in structure to DNA. Three forms of RNA are essential to protein synthesis:messenger RNA (mRNA) Transfer RNA ( tRna), AND RIBOSOMAL rna (rRNA)
  6. Cytoplasm
    the semifluid, gel like substance contained within the cell membrane. The nucleus and numerous structures involved with cell function are found within the cytoplasm.
  7. Protein Synthesis
    the manufacture of proteins, the assembly of chains of amino acidsinto functional protein molecules. Protein synthesis is directed by DNA
  8. Mitochondria
    (mitochondrion) Structures contained within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells that convert energy, derived from nutrients, to a form that can be used by the cell.
  9. Ribosomes
    Structures composed of a form of RNA called Ribosomal RNA ( rRNA) and protein. Ribosomes are found in a cells cytoplasm and are essential to the manufacture of proteins.
  10. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)
    DNA found in the mitochondria. Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from the mother.
  11. Somatic cells
    Basically, all the cells in the body except those involved with reproduction.
  12. Gametes
    Reproductive cells ( eggs and sperm in animals) developed from precursor cells in ovaries and testes.
  13. Zygote
    A cell formed by the union of an egg cell and a sperm cell. It contains the full complement of chromosomes ( in humans, 46) and has the potential of developing into an entire organism.
  14. Nucleotides
    Basic units if the DNA molecule, composed of a sugar, a phosphate, and one of four DNA bases.
  15. Replicate
    To duplicate. The DNA molecule is able to make copies of itself.
  16. Enzymes
    specialized proteins rhar initiate and direct chemical reactions in the body.
  17. Complementary
    In genetics, refering to the fact that DNA bases from pairs ( called base pairs) in a precise manner. For example, adenine can be bond only to thymine. These two bases are said to be complementary because one requires the other to form a complete DNA base pair.
  18. Hemoglobin
    A protein molecule that occurs in red blood cells and binds to oxygen molecules.
  19. Hormones
    Substance ( usually Proteins) that are produced by specialized cells an that are produced vy specialized cells and that travel to other parts of the body, where they influence chemical reactions and regulate various cellular functions.
  20. Amino acids
    small molecules that are the components of proteins.
  21. Messenger RNA (mRNA)
    A form of RNA thats assembled on a sequence of DNA bases. It carries the DNA code to the ribosome during protein synthesis.
  22. Codons
    Triplets of messenger RNA bases that code for specific amino acids during protein synthesis
  23. Transfer RNA (tRNA)
    A type of RNA that binds to specific amino acids and transports them to the ribosome during protein synthesis
  24. Mutation
    A change in DNA. The term can refer to changes in DNA bases ( specifically called point mutations)as well as to changes in chromosome number and or structure.
  25. Gene
    a sequence of DNA bases that specifies the order of amino acids in an entore protei, a portion of a protein, or anyfunctional product . A gene may be made up of hundreds and thousands of DNA bases organized into codingand noncoding segments.
  26. Genome
    The entore genetic makeup of an individual or species. In humans, its estimated that each individual posesses approximately 3 billion DNA bases.
  27. Non coding DNA
    DNA that does not direct the production of proteins. However , such DNA segments may produce other important molecules, so the term noncoding DNA is not really accurate.
  28. Exons
    Segments of genes that are transcribed and are involved in protein synthesis. ( the prefix ex denotes that these segments are expressed)
  29. Introns
    Segments of genes that are initially transcribed and then deleted because they arent expressed, they are involved in protein synthesis
  30. Regulatory genes
    genes that influence the activity of other genes. Regulatory genes direct embryonic developement and are involved in physiological processesthroughout life. they are extremely important in the evolutionary process.
  31. Homeobox genes
    An evolutionarily ancient family or regulatary genes that directs the developement of the overall body plan and the segmentation of the body tissues.
  32. Sickle cell Anemia
    a severe inherited hemoglobin disorder in which red blood cells collapse when deprived of oxygen. It results from inheriting two copies of a mutant allel. The type of mutation that producees the sickle- cell allele is a "point mutation".
  33. Point mutation
    A change in one of the four DNA bases.
  34. Chromatin
    The form of DNA that is present when a cell is not dividing. Microscopically, chromatin appears as a granular substance when it condenses prior to cell division, it forms chromosomes
  35. Chromosomes
    Discrete structures composed of DNA and proteins found only in the nucleic cells. Chromosomes are visible under magnification only during certain phases of cell division.
  36. Autosomes
    All chromosomes except the sex chromosomes
  37. Sex chromosomes
    in mammals, the x and y chromosomes.
  38. Locus
    The position or location on a chromosome where a given gene occurs. The term is sometimes used interchangeably with gene.
  39. Alleles
    Alternate forms of a gene. Alleles occur at the same locus on paired chromosomes and thus govern the same trait. but because theyre different, their action may result in different expressions of that trait.
  40. Karyotype
    The chromosomes of an individual or what is typical of a species, viewed microscopically and displayed in a photograph. the chromosomes are arranged in pairs and according to size and position of the centromere.
  41. Mitosis
    Simple cell division, the process by which somatic cells divide to produce two identical daughter cells.
  42. Meiosis
    Cell division in specialized cells in ovaries and testes, Meiosis involves two divisions and results in four daughter cells, each containing only half the original number of chromosomes. These cells can develope into gametes.
  43. recombination ( crossing over)
    The exchange of genetic material between paired chromosomes during meiosis, also called crossing over
  44. Clones
    Organisms that are genetically identical to another organism. The term may also be used to refer to genetically identical DNA segments, molecules, or cells.
  45. Random assortment
    The chance distribution of chromosomes to daughter cells during meiosis. Along with recombination, random assortment is an important source of genetic variation ( but not new alleles
  46. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
    A method of producing thousands of copies of DNA sample.
  47. Human genome project
    An international effort aimed in sequencing and mapping the entire human genome, completed in 2003. (wikipedia) for more info
  48. page 79 for more summary info on ch3

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