unionized non-charged molecule first-order absorption process who's rate is determined by concentration of the drug at the absorption site?
analytical method used to determine if protein synthesis has been up-regulated or down-regulated in response to exposure to a drug by determining or measuring gene expression?
DNA gene chip microarray
excretion of a molecule that has been conjugated with a water soluble modifier such as glucuronic acid into the bile followed by colonic bacterial glucuronidase processing and then reabsorption into the systemic circulation?
alternate physical forms of a drug product that have different solubilities and properties that can alter bioavailability?
a method of measurement of the lipid solubility of a drug molecule?
n-octanol/water partition coefficient
common method measuring levels of serum creatinine that determines the ability of the renal system to filter and eliminate exogenous or endogenous substances?
metabolic processing of a drug molecule rapidly following oral absorption of a drug molecule and its distribution via the portal vein into the liver?
first pass effect
pH at which a molecule exists as 50% ionized and 50% unionized?
a hydrophobic and/or ion-exchange interaction that produces a reservoir of a drug molecule unavailable for drug-receptor interactions and metabolism- one cause of serious drug interactions?
plasma protein binding
delivery method that can avoid first-pass metabolism?
sublingual or buccal
molecules with 2 or more optically active chiral centers are present and each one has different physical properties?
drug delivery system that utilizes blood brain barrier amino acid transport to get the drug into the brain followed by decarboxylase processing to produce dopamine-always used in conjunction with carbidopa?
binding of an agonist or antagonist NOT to the receptor site but distant from it leading to alteration in activity?
the study of the science of how do genes affect the way that individuals respond to drug exposure?
the study of how drugs interact with receptors on proteins and cells that leads to a particular response?
structural components or functional groups of a molecule whose steric, electronic, and solubility characteristics are interchangeable?
double ester/carbonate approach used to create an acceptable esterase substrate for penicillins and cephalosporins e.g. Vantin?
prodrug ester for beta-lactams
NSAID which is a bioprecursor that requires oxidative decarboxylation to create the active COX inhibitor?
a molecule that decreases or prevents a desired or natural response known as intrinsic activity?
water soluble injectable antibacterial prodrug ester designed to prevent painful injection?
a carbacephalosporin antibacterial agent that contains methylene isosteric replacement of the normal sulfur atom in Cefaclor/Ceclor?
azo linkage prodrug which uses colonic bacterial reductase to deliver an antibiotic and anti-inflammatory agent selectively to the lumen of the colon with minimal systemic absorption?
molecules in which all physical properties are identical except for the direction they rotate plane polarized light?
an anticoagulant drug that demonstrates variable pharmacogenomic properties due to individual patient variability in the metabolic CYP2C9 enzyme and the Vitamin K reductase target called VKORC1?
anti-viral ophthalmic agent that requires phosphorylation for activity?
increase or upregulation of a metabolic process usually in response to a stimuli cuased by another drug or environmental chemicals- an actual increase in the number of enzyme molecules via biosynthesis?
drug used long term for prophylaxis/elimination of frequent UTI; selectively releases formaldehyde in the urine due to the local acidic pH?
the study of how drugs are processed by the body (metabolism and elimination)?
macrolide antibacterial agent used in upper/lower respiratory infections such as Legionnaire's disease?
a molecule that initiates a desired or natural response known as intrinsic activity?
Which two drugs undergo oxidation at allylic carbons?