vet-tech-a-p-2-test-1

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vet-tech-a-p-2-test-1
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vet tech anatomy physiology test set
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vet tech anatomy and physiology 2 test 1 set
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  1. Longitudinal sections
    • a section parallell to the long axis of the organism or part
    • sagittal
    • midsagittal
    • frontal
  2. Sagittal section
    • longitudinal section separating the organism into right and left parts
    • parasagittal - parts are not equal
  3. Mid-Sagittal section or median plane
    longitudinal section separating the organism into equal right and left parts
  4. Transverse plane
    • cross-section
    • section perpendicular to the long axis of the organism or part
    • separates quadruped body or part into:
    • - cranial portion - aka cephalic
    • - caudal portion
  5. Frontal section
    longitudinal section separating the organism into dorsal and ventral parts
  6. Cranial
    at or toward the organism's head
  7. Caudal
    at or toward the organism's tail
  8. Dorsal
    at or toward the organism's backbone
  9. Ventral
    at or toward the organism's 'belly' (underside for quadrupeds)
  10. Anterior
    • at or toward the organism's forward facing part
    • cranial for quadrupeds
  11. Posterior
    • at or toward the organism's rearward facing part
    • caudal for quadrupeds
  12. Lateral
    toward the side
  13. Medial
    toward the midline
  14. Proximal
    nearest to a reference point
  15. Distal
    farthest from a reference point
  16. Rostral
    a point closer to the tip of the nose
  17. Pinna
    direct sound waves into ears
  18. Wrist
    bends posteriorly
  19. Ankle
    bends anteriorly
  20. Body cavities
    • dorsal cavity
    • - cranial cavity
    • - vertebral canal
    • ventral cavity
    • - organs in the ventral cavity are referred to as viscera
    • - thoracic cavity
    • - abdominal
  21. Thoracic cavity
    • pleural cavities lined with serous membranes
    • - parietal pleura
    • - visceral pleura (aka pulmonary pleura)
    • pericardial cavity
    • - region within mediastinum; between the 2 pleural cavities
    • - parietal pericardium
    • - visceral pericardium (aka epicardium)
  22. Abdominal cavity
    • peritoneal cavity (peritoneum)
    • pelvic cavity
  23. Peritoneal cavity
    • mesentery - anchors
    • - mesoduodenum - duodenum - portion of 1st portion of small intestine; this anchors to abdominal wall
    • - mesovarium - anchors portion of ovarian area
    • greater omentum
    • lesser omentum
  24. Pelvic cavity
    • peritoneum extends into cranial portions of the cavity & covers urinary bladder & reproductive organs
    • urinary bladder
    • rectum
    • reproductive organs
    • - males outside pelvic cavity as need lower temp
  25. Retrotperitoneal
    • outside peritoneum
    • kidneys
    • part of small intestine
    • pancreas
  26. Tongue
    papillae on side help create vacuum when nursing
  27. Spleen
    part of cardiovascular & lymph system
  28. Adrenal
    epithelial glandular tissue with nervous tissue in center
  29. Pig digestive system
    • do NOT have an appendix
    • cecum is beginning of large intestine
    • iliocecal valve between small and large intestine
  30. Urogenital sinus
    • single opening with separate urethra & vagina
    • divides in vestibule
    • males have common passage
  31. Fibrous pericardium
    provides additional protection to heart
  32. Pulmonary trunk
    delivers blood from heart to lungs for oxygenation
  33. Artery
    • carries blood away from heart
    • mostly oxygenated except pulmonary & umbilical arteries
  34. Vein
    • carries blood to heart
    • mostly NOT oxygenated except pulmonary & umbilical vein
  35. Larynx
    7 cartilages in pig
  36. Pituitary
    • in sella turcica
    • works with areas of CNS
  37. Thymus
    • programs T-lymphocytes to recognize self vs not self
    • atrophies with age
  38. Manus
    • terminal portion of forelimb
    • forefoot
  39. Pes
    • distal end of hind limb
    • hind foot
  40. Plantigrade
    posture in which the heel and digits of each foot rests on the ground
  41. Digitigrade
    form of locomotion in which the heel is elevated above the ground
  42. Homologous
    structures in different species that are similar due to shared common ancestry
  43. Homologue
    • any organ corresponding in function, origin, and structure to another organ
    • eg the flippers of a seal correspond to human hands
  44. Endothermic
    • warm-blooded
    • homeothermy
  45. Homeothermy
    the maintenance of a constant body temperature despite changes in the environmental temperature
  46. Thorax
    • the part of the body that lies between the neck and the abdomen
    • aka chest
    • is composed of a bony framework reinforced by soft parts
    • contains the main organs of circulation and respiration
  47. Abdomen
    • the part of the body of a mammal between the thorax and the pelvis
    • aka belly
  48. Vibrissae
    whiskers
  49. Nares
    nostrils or nasal passages
  50. Mammary papillae
    nipples
  51. Egestion
    The act or process of voiding or discharging undigested food as feces
  52. Excretion
    • the act or process of discharging waste matter from the blood, tissues, or organs
    • the matter, such as urine or sweat, that is so excreted.
  53. Urogenital
    • of or relating to the urinary and genital organs and their functions
    • aka genitourinary
  54. Vulva
    • The external genital organs of the female
    • including the labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, and vestibule of the vagina
  55. Cervical
    • 1. Relating to or involving the cervix of the uterus.
    • 2. Relating to or located in or near the neck.
  56. Digit
    finger/toe
  57. Pectoral girdle
    a skeletal support to which the front or upper limbs of a vertebrate are attached
  58. Pelvic girdle
    the skeletal structure to which the hind limbs are attached
  59. Placenta
    • the vascular organ formed in the uterus during pregnancy
    • consists of both maternal and embryonic tissues
    • provides oxygen and nutrients for the fetus
    • transfers waste products from the fetal to the maternal blood circulation
  60. Umbilical cord
    • flexible cordlike structure connecting a fetus at the abdomen with the placenta
    • contains two umbilical arteries and one vein that transport nourishment to the fetus and remove its wastes
  61. Umbilical vein
    • a vein in the umbilical cord
    • returns nutrient blood from the placenta to the fetus
  62. Umbilical arteries
    • a paired artery (with one for each half of the body) that is found in the abdominal and pelvic regions
    • in the fetus, it extends into the umbilical cord
    • supply deoxygenated blood from the fetus to the placenta in the umbilical cord
    • usually two umbilical arteries present together with one umbilical vein in the cord
    • actually the latter of the internal iliac arteries that supply the hind limbs with blood and nutrients in the fetus
    • surround the urinary bladder and then carry all the deoxygenated blood out of the fetus through the umbilical cord
    • only arteries in the human body, aside from the pulmonary arteries, that carry deoxygenated blood
  63. Allantoic duct
    • aka urachus
    • a fetal canal connecting the bladder with the allantois
    • persists throughout life as a cord (median umbilical ligament)
  64. Principal distinguishing characteristics of the Order Mammalia
    • body surfaces covered with hair (pili)
    • an integumentum with several types of glands
    • a skull with 2 occipital condyles
    • 7 cervical vertebrae
    • teeth borne on bony jaws
    • moveable eyelids
    • pinnae
    • 4 chambered heart
    • muscular diaphragm separating thoracic & abdominal cavities
    • endothermic
    • young develop in uterus with placental attachment
    • mammary glands (milk) to nourish young
  65. Occipital condyles
    • found at the base of the occipital bone on the lower back portion of the skull
    • one of two kidney-shaped convex surfaces that articulate with the superior facets of the atlas bone
    • each condyle is located to either side of the foramen magnum
    • shape of the occipital condyle allows for nodding and very slight lateral movements of the head
  66. Foramen magnum
    the hole in the skull base through which the spinal cord enters the cranium
  67. Groups of articulations
    • synarthrosis
    • amphiarthosis
    • diarthrosis
  68. Synarthrosis
    • little or no movement
    • sutures
    • gomphosis
  69. Suture
    • fairly rigid joint between two or more bones of an animal, without significant overlap
    • eg joints between skull bones
  70. Gomphosis
    • an articulation by the insertion of a conical process into a socket
    • eg the insertion of a root of a tooth into an alveolus of the mandible or the maxilla
    • not a connection between true bones but is considered a type of fibrous joint
  71. Amphiarthrosis
    • slight movement
    • gliding joints of wrist
  72. Diarthrosis
    • freely moveable
    • synovial joints
  73. General anatomy of synovial joints
    • articular capsule
    • - fibrous capsule lined by synovial membrane
    • - continuous with periosteum
    • synovial fluid
    • - viscous slippery fluid rich in albumin & hyaluronic acid & similar to raw egg white
    • articular cartilage
    • - hyaline cartilage covering the bone surfaces
    • meniscus
    • - pad of fibrocartilage in jaw, wrist, knee
  74. Tendon
    attaches muscle to bone
  75. Ligament
    attaches bone to bone
  76. Aponeurosis
    • layer of flat broad tendons
    • have a shiny, whitish-silvery color
    • histologically similar to tendons, but are very sparingly supplied with blood vessels and nerves
    • when dissected, aponeuroses are papery, and peel off by sections
    • primary regions with thick aponeurosis are in the ventral abdominal region, the dorsal lumbar region, and in the palmar region
    • primary function is to join muscles and the body parts the muscles act upon
  77. Bone shape
    • short
    • - carpals
    • - tarsals
    • irregular
    • - vertebrae
    • - sesamoids
    • flat
    • - scapular bones
    • - pelvic bones
    • long
  78. Long bone structure
    • periosteum & articular cartilage
    • compact & spongy bone
    • endosteum
    • yellow marrow
  79. Axial skeleton
    • skull
    • ribcage
    • vertebral column
    • - cat 7C, 13T, 7L, 3S, 5-23Co
    • - cattle 7, 13, 6, 5, 18-20
    • - dog 7, 13, 7, 3, 20-23
    • - goat 7, 13, 7, 5, 16-18
    • - horse 7, 18, 6, 5, 15-21
    • - pig 7, 14/15, 6/7, 4, 20-23
    • - sheep 7, 13, 6/7, 4, 16-18
  80. Anticlinal vertebrae
    • landmark - spinous process points straight upward
    • T11 in dogs & cats
    • T16 in horses
    • T13 in cattle & sheep
    • T10 in swine
  81. Herniated disc
    a tear in the outer, fibrous ring (annulus fibrosus) of an intervertebral disc (discus intervertebralis) allows the soft, central portion (nucleus pulposus) to bulge out
  82. Appendicular skeleton
    • bones of forelimbs & hind limbs
    • pectoral & pelvic girdles
  83. Types of synovial joints
    • ball & socket - spheroid
    • ginglymus - hinge
    • trochoid - pivot
    • arthropoidal - gliding
    • ellipsoidal - condyloid
  84. Ball & socket joints (spheroid)
    • smooth hemispherical head fits within a cuplike depression
    • - head of humerus into glenoid cavity of scapula
    • - head of femur into acetabulum of hip bone
    • multiaxial joint
  85. Hinge joints (ginglymus)
    • one bone with convex surface that fits into a concave depression on another bone
    • - ulna & humerus at elbow joint
    • - femur & tibia at knee joint
    • - metacarpal/phalanges
    • monoaxial joint
  86. Pivot joints (trochoid)
    • one bone has a projection that fits into a ringlike ligament of another
    • first bone rotates on its longitudinal axis relative to the other
    • - atlantoaxial joint - dens & atlas
    • - radius/ulna
  87. Gliding joints (arthroidal)
    • flat articular surfaces in which bones slide over each other
    • - between carpals
    • - between tarsals
    • limited monoaxial joint
    • considered amphiarthroses
  88. Condyloid (ellipsoidal) joints
    • oval convex surface on one bone fits into a similarly shaped depression on the next
    • - between femur/tibia
  89. Meniscus
    • cartilage disk that acts as a cushion between the ends of bones that meet in a joint
    • crescent-shaped fibrous cartilage between the bones at certain joints, esp at the knee
  90. Sutures
    • immovable fibrous joins that bind the bones of the skull to each other
    • serrate sutures appear as interlocking wavy lines
    • between cranial bones
  91. Gomphoses
    • attachment of a tooth to its socket is a joint called a gomphoses
    • tooth held in place by fibrous periodontal ligament
    • - collagen fibers that extend from bone of jaw to tooth
    • allows tooth to move a little while chewing
  92. Myology
    • muscular nomenclature
    • - location - temporalis, dorsalis
    • - shape - deltoid, trapezius
    • - size - profundus, longus, maximus
    • - direction of fibers - transverse, oblique, rectus
    • - number of origins - biceps, triceps
    • - origin & insertion - sternohyoideus
    • actions
    • - flexor - decreases joint angle - eg flex elbow, hand comes toward shoulder
    • - extensor - increases joint angle - eg extend elbow, hand moves away from shoulder
    • - abductor - draws limb away from median plane - raising arm to side
    • - adductor - draws limb toward median plane - lowering arm to body
  93. Circumduction
    • he circular (or, more precisely, conical) movement of a body part
    • eg a ball-and-socket joint or the eye
    • consists of a combination of flexion, extension, adduction, and abduction
    • eg "Windmilling" the arms or rotating the hand from the wrist
  94. Rotation
    • motion that occurs when a part turns on its axis
    • the head rotates on the neck (C2 - axis cervical vertebrae), as in shaking the head 'no'
  95. Origin
    • point at which it attaches to a bone (usually) or another muscle
    • the structure that the origin is attached to is not moved by the contraction of the muscle
  96. Insertion
    • attaches to the structure that will be moved by the contraction of the muscle
    • usually connections of muscle via tendon to bone
  97. Gaster or belly
    The fleshy, central part of a muscle
  98. Muscle fiber
    • also technically known as a myocyte
    • a single cell of a muscle
    • contain many myofibrils, the contractile unit of muscles
    • are very long; a single fibre can reach a length of 30cm.
  99. Muscle fascicles
    bundle of skeletal muscle fibers surrounded by perimysium, a type of connective tissue
  100. Muscle
    • a tissue composed of bundles of elongated cells
    • capable of contraction and relaxation to produce movement in an organ or part
  101. Connective tissues of a muscle
    • epimysium
    • perimysium
    • endomysium
  102. Epimysium
    • covers whole muscle belly
    • blends into connective tissue that separates muscles
  103. Perimysium
    • slightly thicker layer of connective tissue
    • surrounds a bundle of cells called a fascicle
  104. Endomysium
    • thin layer of aereolar tissue surrounding each cell
    • allows room for capillaries and nerve fibers
  105. Agonist
    • prime mover
    • muscle that actively contracts to produce a desired movement
  106. Antagonist
    relaxes while prime mover contracts
  107. Synergist
    • aids prime mover
    • increases the action of another muscle
  108. Fixator
    • stabilizes origin of prime mover
    • muscle whose action tends to hold a body part in a certain position or limit its movement
  109. Intramusclular injection sites in cats & dogs
    • gluteal muscles
    • quadriceps
    • gastrocnemius
    • hamstring
    • - Biceps femoris
    • - Semimembranous
    • - Semitendinosus
    • Triceps brachii
  110. Intramusclular injection sites in cattle & goats
    • gluteal
    • hamstring
    • triceps
    • trapezius
  111. Intramusclular injection sites in horses
    • gluteal
    • hamstring
    • triceps
    • trapezius
    • pectoral muscles
  112. Intramusclular injection sites in swine
    • semitendinosus
    • brachiocephalicus
    • trapezius
  113. Panniculus carnosus
    shivering & warmth
  114. Muscle tissue
    cells capable of shortening & converting the chemical energy of ATP into mechanical energy
  115. Universal characteristics of muscle
    • responsiveness (excitability)
    • conductivity
    • contractility
    • extensibility
    • elasticity
  116. Responsiveness (excitability)
    capable of response to chemical signals, stretch or other signals & responding with electrical changes across the plasma membrane (negative charge -> positive -> negative)
  117. Conductivity
    local electrical change triggers a wave of excitation that travels along the muscle fiber
  118. Contractility
    cell shortens when stimulated
  119. Extensibility
    capable of being stretched
  120. Elasticity
    returns to its original resting lengh after being stretched/contracted
  121. Types of muscle tissue
    • skeletal
    • cardiac
    • smooth
  122. Skeletal muscle
    • voluntary - under concious control
    • striated
    • - exhibits alternating light & dark transverse bands (striations)
    • - reflects overlapping arrangement of internal contractile proteins (actin & myosin)
    • attached to one or more bones
    • muscle fibers (myofibers) as long as 30 cm
  123. Physiology of skeletal muscle
    basis of warm-up, strength, endurance & fatigue
  124. Cardiac muscle
    • involuntary
    • striated
    • in comparison to skeletal muscle
    • - cells shorter, thicker, branched & linked to each other at intercalated discs
    • autorhythmic due to pacemaker cells
    • uses aerobic respiration almost exclusively
  125. Smooth muscle
    • involuntary
    • no visible straiations, sarcomeres, or Z discs
    • fusiform (spindle shaped) cells with one nucleus (fat in middle, taper at ends)
    • nerve supply is autonomic, if any is present
    • found in walls of hollow organs, around blood vessels (wrapping)
  126. Sliding filament theory of muscular contraction
  127. Be able to identify the muscles you located
    • in lab after you are given the origin,
    • insertion and the action(s) of the muscle
    • including but not limited to:
    • Abdominal muscles
    • Biceps brachii
    • Brachiocephalic
    • Deltoideus
    • Digastricus
    • Gastrocnemius
    • Gluteous superficialis
    • Gluteous medius
    • Gracilis
    • Hamstrings
    • Latissimus dorsi
    • Masseter
    • Pectoralis superficialis
    • Pectoralis profundus
    • Quadricepts
    • Sartorius
    • Trapezius
    • Triceps brachii

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