Mrt 240

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Author:
marlasherman
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133657
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Mrt 240
Updated:
2012-02-11 15:11:19
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unit one
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  1. What joint corresponds to the sternal angle
    manubriosternal
  2. Where is the xiphoid process located
    7+7=14 or 7 rib pairs
  3. What curve description is used to describe the bervical spine
    lordotic or convex anteriorly (cancave posteriorly)
  4. What bony anatomy forms ther vertebral arch of each vertebra
    pedicles and laminae
  5. What bony anatomy forms the vertebral foramen of each vertebra
    posterior surface of vertebral body and vertebral arch
  6. Through what anatomy do spinal nerves and blood vessels exit the spinal column and what bony anatomy is involved
    • Intervertebral foramina(rt. side and lt. side)
    • formed by the inferior vertebral notches of one vertebra and the superior vertebral notches of the vertebra below it
  7. What joints are formed by the inferior articular processes of one vertebra and the superior articular processes of the next vertebra
    zygapophseal joints
  8. List 2 distinctive physical features of all cervical verebra
    • transverse foramina
    • bifid spinous process
  9. List 2 distinctive physical features of C1
    • No body
    • anterior and posterior arches
    • position of superior and inferior articular processes
    • very short spinous process
  10. list 2 distinctive physical features of C2
    • odontoid process (dens)
    • lamina froad and thick
    • spinous process horizontal
    • position of superior articular processes
  11. What bony anatomy froms the intervertebral foramina of the cervical spine
    formed by the inferior vertebral notches (pedicales )of one vertebra and the superior vertebral notches (pedicles) of the vertebra below it
  12. At what angle do intervertebral foramina of the c spine lie in relation to the midsagittal plane of the body
    directed anteriorly 45
  13. At what angle do intervertebral foramina of the c spine lie in relation the the horizontal plane of the body
    directed inferiorly 15
  14. What radiographic position demonstrates intervertebral foramina of the c spine
    right and left 45 obliques with 15 angle of CR
  15. What bony anatomy forms the zygapophseal joints of c2-c7
    formed by the inferior articular processes (and facets) of one vertebra and the superior articular processes(and facets) of the vertebra below it
  16. At what anfle do zygapophseal joints of c2-c7 lie in relation to the midsagittal plane of the body
    right angles or perpendicular
  17. What radiographic position demonstrates the zygapophseal joints of c2-c7
    lateral view : right and left zygapophseal joints are superimposed
  18. What is the the function of the transverse foramina of the cervical spine
    transmission of the vertebral artery and vein
  19. What structure divides the vertebral foramen of C1 into two compartments
    transverse atlantal ligament
  20. What bony anatomy lies between the superior and inferior articular processses of c1
    lateral mass(2)
  21. What bony anatomy lies between the superior and inferior articular processes of c3-c7
    articular pillar(2) each vertebra
  22. What bony anatomy does c1 with to form atlantoaxial joints
    ondontoid and superior articular processes of c2
  23. List two physical features of thoracic vertebrae
    • costal facets on bodies and transverse processes
    • spinous processes project sharply inferiorly
    • position of superior and inferior articular processes
  24. What bony anatomy forms the intervertebral foramina of the thoracic spine
    formed by the inferior vertebral notches(pedicles) of one vertebra and the superior verebral notches (pedicles) of the vertebra below it
  25. At what angle do the intervertebral foramina of the thoracic spine lie in relation to the midsagittal plane of the body
    right angles or perpendicular
  26. What radiographic postion demonstrates intervertebral foramina of the t spine
    lateral view: right and left intervertbral foramina are superimposed
  27. List two distinctive physical features of lumbar vertebrae
    • pars interacticularis x 2 ( part of each lamina)
    • spinous processes are large,thick,blunt,almost horizontal projection
    • position of superior and inferior articular processes
  28. What bony anatomy forms the intervertebral foramina of the lumbar spine
    formed by the inferior vertebral notches (pedicles) of one vertebral and the superior verebral notches(pedicles ) of the vertebra below it
  29. At what angle do the intervertebral foramina of the lumbar spine lie in relation to the midsagittal plane of the body
    right angles or perpendicul
  30. What radiographic position demonstrates intervertebral foramina of the l spine
    lateral view : right and left intervertebral foramina are superimposed
  31. What bony anatomy forms the zygapophyseal joints of the lumbar spine
    formed by the inferior articular processes ( and facets) of on vertebra and the superior articular processes ( and facet) of the vertebra below it
  32. At what angle do the zygapophyseal joint of the l spine lie in relation to the midsagittal plane of the body
    range 30-60
  33. What radiographic position demonstrates the zygapophyseal joints of the l spine
    right and left obliques 30-60
  34. What bony anatomy lies between the superior and inferior articular processes of each lumbar vertebra
    pars interarticularis (2) - part of lamina
  35. What bony anatomy lies between the superior and inferior articular processes of c1
    lateral mass(2)
  36. What bony anatomy lies between the superior and inferior articular processes each typical cervical vertebra c3-c7
    articular pillar (2)
  37. Which thoracic vertebrae have costal facets on their transverse processes and what bony anatomy articulates with these facets
    T1-T10 and facets accommodate rib tubercles
  38. Atypical Ribs
    First rib
    • Shorest & slopes obliquely down wards and forwards
    • Has and anterior & posterior groove for the subclavian artery & vein
    • Is the least mobile
  39. Seventh rib
    Is the longest
  40. Eleventh & Twelfth ribs
    • Often referred to as floating or vertebral ribs
    • Have no tubercle
    • Only one articular surface on the head
  41. Which ribs have the greatest transverse diameter of the thorax
    The eighth and ninth pairs of ribs
  42. 1-7 ribs
    Art the true ribs or vertebrosternal ribs
  43. 8-12 ribs
    are false rib
  44. 11-12 ribs
    Floating ribs
  45. Cervical Ribs
    • The anterior part of the transverse process of C7 may develop as a cervical rib
    • May be unilateral or bilateral (more common)
    • Anterior extremety may be cartilaginous or maybe connected to the sternum by a band of fibrous tissue
    • The true length may not alsways be demonstrated radiographically
    • May couse interference with the blood flow in the subclavian artery or paralysis due to pressure on the brachial plexus(nerves)
  46. Costal Cartilages
    • 10 pairs of costal cartilages(hyaline)
    • attached to the anterior ends of the ribs
    • 1st -7th articulate directly with the costal notches of the sternum forming the sternocostal joints
    • 8th-10th articulate immediately above
    • 11th-12th end in the lateral abdominal wall
  47. Sternoclavicular joints
    Sternal end of clavicle articlates with clavicular notch of mandbrium
  48. Manubriosternal joint
    Manubium articulates with body of sternumsternal angle
  49. Xiphisternal joint
    Body of sternum articulates with xiphoid process
  50. Sternocostal joints
    Costal cartilages 91-7) articulates with costal notches of sternum
  51. Interchrondral joints
    Formed between adjacent costal cartilages
  52. The bones of the thorax include
    Sternum and 12 pairs of ribs and 12 thoracic vertebrae
  53. Name the upper part of the sternum
    manubrium
  54. What is the anatomical name given to the area which is between the manubrium and the body of the sternum
    Sternal angle
  55. What is the mane of the uppermost notch of the manubrium? List the three names which can be used for this imprtant landmark
    • Suprasternal motch
    • Jugular notch
    • Manubrium notch
  56. Which is the name of the only joint which connects the shoulder girdle to the bony thorax
    Sternoclavicular
  57. What is the name of the substance which connects the first seven pairs of ribs directly to the sternum
    Costal cartilage
  58. The anterior end of which rib connects to the costocartilage and to sternum at the level of of the sternal angle
    2nd rib
  59. How many pors of ribs connect directly to the sternum via costocartilages
    7 pairs
  60. Do the lower two pairs of ribs connect to the sternum by way of costocartilage
    no
  61. The lower two pairs of ribs in addition to being false ribs, are also termed
    floating ribs
  62. The 8th,9th and 10th pairs of ribs have costocartilage. To what do these costocartilages attach to.
    The the costal cartilage directly above
  63. The head,neck and tubercle of a typical rib is located near the --------- end of the rib
    vertebral
  64. IN the anatomical postion the --------end of each rib is more superior
    verebral
  65. The costal grooce of each rib protects and contains what structures
    veins, artery & nerve
  66. On deep inspiration the diaphragm should be at or below the level of the ------rib posteriorly
    10th
  67. Which structure forms the sternal angle
    manubrium and body of sternum
  68. The most inferior portion of the sternum is
    xiphoid process
  69. What does the manubium articulate with
    • first and second pairs of ribs
    • medial ends of the clavicles
  70. How many ribs articulate directly with the sternum
    14
  71. Ribs that attach anteriorly to the cartilage of other ribs are referred to as
    vertebrochondral ribs
  72. What structures make up the bony thorax
    ribs and sternum
  73. What is the layman's term used for sternum
    breast bone
  74. The largest and strongest vertrae belongs to which region
    Lumbar
  75. An inferior entrance to the vertebral canal is the sacral
    Hiatus
  76. An important obstertrical landmark is the sacral
    Promontory
  77. The spinal cord passes through which foramen
    Vertebral
  78. The auricular surface of the sacrum articulates with the
    ilium
  79. What structures form the vertebral arch
    Laminae and pedicles
  80. The first cervical vertebra is also known as the
    atlas
  81. The facets and demifacets on the thoracic vertevral bodies are sites of articulation with the
    heads of ribs
  82. The anteriorly concave curves of the bertebral column are the
    Thoracic and sacral
  83. Whic curve develops when an infant begins to hold its head up
    Cervical
  84. Bony Thorax
    Includes sternum, 12 pairs of ribs and 12 thoracic vertebrae
    • Supports the wall of pleural cavity and diaphragm
    • Protects the heart and lungs
    • Moves with respiration
  85. Sternum
    Located midline anterior thorax
    • Narrow, flat bone
    • approx. 6 " long
    • 3 parts including the manubrium, body and xiphoid process
    • Articulates with clavicles and costal Cartilages of the first 7 pairs of ribs at its lateral borders
  86. manubrium
    Superior portion
  87. Jugular notch
    Depression center of superior border of manubrium
  88. Clavicular notches (2)
    lateral and posterior to jugular notch
  89. costal notches for 1st rib pair
    immediately inferior to clavicular notches
  90. sternal angle
    where body and manubrium join
  91. costal notches for 2nd rib pair
    lateral borders sternal angle
  92. Body
    longest part of sternum
  93. costal notches for 3 thru 7 rib pairs
    lateral borders of body
  94. xiphoid process
    small distal end of sternum, shape variable
  95. Ribs
    12 pairs consecutively numbered superiorly to inferiorly
    • Rib number corresponds to thoracic vertebra to which it attaches
    • long, narrow & curved with costal cartilage anterior end (sternal end, ribs pairs 1-10)
    • rib pairs 1 thru 7 attach directly to the sternum
    • rib pairs 8 thru 10 attach to costal cartilage of rib pair 7
    • rib pairs 11 & 12 attach only to vertebra posteriorly
  96. true ribs
    attach directly to sternum (1-7)
  97. false ribs
    have no direct attachment to sternum (8-12)
  98. floating ribs
    attached only posteriorly (11-12)
  99. intercostal spaces
    between consecutive ribs
  100. Vertebral column
    encloses and protects spinal cord
    provides support and attachment for muscles and bones
  101. Vertebral column includes
    • includes
    • 7 cervical vertebrae (neck)
    • 12 thoracic vertebrae
    • 5 lumbar vertebrae (lower back)
    • sacrum (5) and coccyx (3-5) (pelvis)
  102. Vertebral Curvature
    lordotic curve –
    • convex anteriorly
    • kyphotic curve – concave anteriorly
    • primary curves (present at birth) – thoracic & pelvic
    • secondary curves – cervical & lumbar
  103. Intervertebral disk has two parts
    • nucleus pulposus
    • annulus fibrosus
  104. ›nucleus pulposus
    ›annulus fibrosus
  105. annulus fibrosus
    fibrocartilaginous disk
  106. slipped disc
    is a herniated nucleus pulposus
  107. lumbosacral (L5-S1):
    between the body of L5 and the base of the sacrum
  108. sacroiliac:
    articulation of auricular surface of sacrum and auricular surface of ilium (2)
  109. sacrococcygeal:
    articulation of the apex of the sacrum and the base of the coccyx
  110. sacral canal
    is a continuation of the vertebral canal directly behind bodies of sacral segments for transmission of sacral nerves
  111. sacral foramina
    are located anterior & posterior walls of canal -4 anterior pairs and 4 posterior pairs transmitting sacral nerves and blood vessels
  112. sacral cornua (2)
    are processes projecting inferiorly from posterolateral aspect of last sacral segment
  113. auricular surface of sacrum
    articulates with auricular surface of ilium (2)
  114. sacrum articulates
    • with ilia of the pelvis laterally and L5 superiorly
    • and the coccyx inferiorly
  115. coccygeal cornua (2)
    are processes projecting superiorly from posterolateral aspect of first coccygeal segment to join the sacral cornua (attached by ligaments

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