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Bone - Fast Facts
1. 1 of 4 types of connective tissue.
2. The SECOND hardest tissue in the human body. (Only dental enamel is harder.)
Types of bone tissue.
- Periosteum: Outermost covering; tough, fibrous.
- Compact bone: Protective outer layer of bone; dense, hard, very strong.
: Found in ends and inner
portions of long bones
; lighter than compact bone. Red marrow
is located within spongy bone.
- Medullary cavity: Located in shaft of long bones; surrounded by compact bone.
- Endosteum: Lining of medullary cavity.
- 1. Red bone marrow: Located within spongy bone. Hemopoeitic tissue; manufactures:
- .....a. red blood cells
- .....b. hemoglobin
- .....c. white blood cells
- .....d. thrombocytes
2. Yellow bone marrow
: Located in medullary cavity
. Fat storage
area which contains mostly fat cells.
1. Shock absorber between bones
; smooth rubbery blue-white connective tissue
- 2. More elastic than bone; makes up flexible parts of skeleton (examples: nose tip, outer ears)
- 3. Two types are: Articular cartilage and Meniscus.
1. Covers surfaces of bones as they come together to form joints.
2. Makes smooth joint movement possible.
3. Keeps bones from rubbing against each other.
Curved fibrous cartilage found in some joints (examples: knee & temoromandibular joint of jaw)
Shaft of a long bone.
1. Wide end(s) of a long bone.
2. Covered in articular cartilage.
3. Proximal end located nearest midline of body.
4. Distal end located farthest from the midline..
- Opening in bone - pass through for:
- .....* blood vessels
- .....* nerves
- .....* ligaments
1. Normal projection on the surface of a bone.
2. Serves as an attachment for muscles and tendons.
1. Place of union between 2 or more bones
- 2. Classified according to:
- .....a. Construction
- .....b. Degree of movement they allow
- 3. There are 3 basic types of joints:
- .....a. Fibrous
- .....b. Cartilaginous
- .....c. Synovial
1. Consist of inflexible layers of dense connective tissue.
2. Hold bones tightly together.
3. Do not allow any movement.
4. Also known as sutures - in infants and very young children these joints are movable before they solidify.
- 1. 2 soft spots on infant's skull:
- .....* anterior
- .....* posterior
2.Normally present in
the skull of a newborn
- 3. Allow for:
- .....a. passage through birth canal.....b. Growth of skull during first year of life.
4. Sutures - fibrous joints - gradually harden and fontanelles close.
1. Allow only slight movement
2. Consist of bones connected entirely by cartilage
- 3. Examples include:
- ..... * Ribs connect to sternum - allow breathing
- ..... * Pubic symphysis:
- ..........* Between pubic bones in anterior of pelvis
- ..........* Allow spreading for childbirth
1. Cartilaginous joint that allows some movement to facilitate childbirth.
2. Located between public bones in anterior of the pelvis.
1. Created where 2 bones articulate
to permit a variety of motions
- 2. Described based on type of motion:
- .....a. Ball and socket joints:
- ..........*Wide range of movement
- ..........* In many directions
- ......... * Examples: hip & shoulder
- .....b. Hinge joints
- ..........* Movement primarily in one direction or plane
- ..........* Examples: knee & elbow
- 3. Consist of several components in the synovial cavity:
- .....a. Synovial capsule
- .....b. Synovial membrane
- .....c. Synovial fluid
- .....d. Ligaments
- .....e. Bursa
1. Outermost layer of strong, fibrous tissue.
2. Resembles a sleeve as it surrounds the joint.
1. Lines the capsule.
2. Secretes synovial fluid.
1. Flows within synovial cavity
2. Acts as a lubricant to allow smooth joint movement.
- 1. Bands of fibrous tissue that form joints by:
- .....a. connecting bone to bone or
- .....b. joining bone to cartilage
- 2. Complex hinge joints such as the knee are made up a series of ligaments that permit movement in different directions.
1. Fibrous sac
2. Acts as a cushion in area that a subject to friction where a tendon passes over a bone.
3. Exampes: Shoulder, elbow, and knee joints