Ch3_Medical_Terminology_Part2_Major_Skeletal_Structures

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havenwood
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133676
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Ch3_Medical_Terminology_Part2_Major_Skeletal_Structures
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2012-02-10 20:45:11
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Medical Terminology Health Professional 6E JCCC AAC130
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Ch3, Part 2 - Medical Terminology - Major Structures
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  1. Bone - Fast Facts
    1. 1 of 4 types of connective tissue.

    2. The SECOND hardest tissue in the human body. (Only dental enamel is harder.)
  2. Types of bone tissue.
    • Periosteum: Outermost covering; tough, fibrous.
    • Compact bone: Protective outer layer of bone; dense, hard, very strong.

    Spongy bone: Found in ends and inner portions of long bones; lighter than compact bone. Red marrow is located within spongy bone.

    • Medullary cavity: Located in shaft of long bones; surrounded by compact bone.
    • Endosteum: Lining of medullary cavity.
  3. Bone Marrow
    • 1. Red bone marrow: Located within spongy bone. Hemopoeitic tissue; manufactures:
    • .....a. red blood cells
    • .....b. hemoglobin
    • .....c. white blood cells
    • .....d. thrombocytes

    2. Yellow bone marrow: Located in medullary cavity. Fat storage area which contains mostly fat cells.
  4. Cartilage
    1. Shock absorber between bones; smooth rubbery blue-white connective tissue.

    • 2. More elastic than bone; makes up flexible parts of skeleton (examples: nose tip, outer ears)
    • 3. Two types are: Articular cartilage and Meniscus.
  5. Articular cartilage
    1. Covers surfaces of bones as they come together to form joints.

    2. Makes smooth joint movement possible.

    3. Keeps bones from rubbing against each other.
  6. Meniscus
    Curved fibrous cartilage found in some joints (examples: knee & temoromandibular joint of jaw)
  7. Diaphysis
    Shaft of a long bone.
  8. Epiphysis
    1. Wide end(s) of a long bone.

    2. Covered in articular cartilage.

    3. Proximal end located nearest midline of body.

    4. Distal end located farthest from the midline..
  9. Foramen
    • Opening in bone - pass through for:
    • .....* blood vessels
    • .....* nerves
    • .....* ligaments
  10. Process
    1. Normal projection on the surface of a bone.

    2. Serves as an attachment for muscles and tendons.
  11. Joints
    1. Place of union between 2 or more bones.

    • 2. Classified according to:
    • .....a. Construction
    • .....b. Degree of movement they allow

    • 3. There are 3 basic types of joints:
    • .....a. Fibrous
    • .....b. Cartilaginous
    • .....c. Synovial
  12. Fibrous joints
    1. Consist of inflexible layers of dense connective tissue.

    2. Hold bones tightly together.

    3. Do not allow any movement.

    4. Also known as sutures - in infants and very young children these joints are movable before they solidify.
  13. Fontanelles
    • 1. 2 soft spots on infant's skull:
    • .....* anterior
    • .....* posterior

    2.Normally present in the skull of a newborn.

    • 3. Allow for:
    • .....a. passage through birth canal
    • .....b. Growth of skull during first year of life.

    4. Sutures - fibrous joints - gradually harden and fontanelles close.
  14. Cartilaginous joints
    1. Allow only slight movement

    2. Consist of bones connected entirely by cartilage.

    • 3. Examples include:
    • ..... * Ribs connect to sternum - allow breathing
    • ..... * Pubic symphysis:
    • ..........* Between pubic bones in anterior of pelvis
    • ..........* Allow spreading for childbirth
  15. Pubic symphysis
    1. Cartilaginous joint that allows some movement to facilitate childbirth.

    2. Located between public bones in anterior of the pelvis.
  16. Synovial joints
    1. Created where 2 bones articulate to permit a variety of motions.

    • 2. Described based on type of motion:
    • .....a. Ball and socket joints:
    • ..........*Wide range of movement
    • ..........* In many directions
    • ......... * Examples: hip & shoulder
    • .....b. Hinge joints
    • ..........* Movement primarily in one direction or plane
    • ..........* Examples: knee & elbow

    • 3. Consist of several components in the synovial cavity:
    • .....a. Synovial capsule
    • .....b. Synovial membrane
    • .....c. Synovial fluid
    • .....d. Ligaments
    • .....e. Bursa
  17. Synovial Capsule
    1. Outermost layer of strong, fibrous tissue.

    2. Resembles a sleeve as it surrounds the joint.
  18. Synovial membrane
    1. Lines the capsule.

    2. Secretes synovial fluid.
  19. Synovial fluid
    1. Flows within synovial cavity

    2. Acts as a lubricant to allow smooth joint movement.
  20. Ligaments
    • 1. Bands of fibrous tissue that form joints by:
    • .....a. connecting bone to bone or
    • .....b. joining bone to cartilage

    • 2. Complex hinge joints such as the knee are made up a series of ligaments that permit movement in different directions.
  21. Bursa
    1. Fibrous sac

    2. Acts as a cushion in area that a subject to friction where a tendon passes over a bone.

    3. Exampes: Shoulder, elbow, and knee joints

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