Lungs and respiration

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Lungs and respiration
2012-02-09 08:16:11
Lungs respiration

Lungs and respiration
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  1. Cupula
    • apex of lung (top)
    • part of lung that can emerge above first rib
  2. Grooves
    • Cardiac notch: on L lung
    • Aortic: on L lung
    • Azygos: on R lung
    • Superior vena cava: on R lung
    • Esphageal: on both lungs
    • Trachea: on both lungs
    • Diaphragm: on both lungs
    • Thymus gland: on both lungs
  3. Hilum
    • "root of lung"
    • medial
    • Contains: bronchi, pulmonary veins, pulmonary arteries, pulmonary ligament (inferior extension of pleura, double fold, that surrounds hilum)
  4. Larynx
    • First place with just air
    • lies between C3-C6
    • Guards airway and houses vocal cords in thyroid cartilage
    • cricoid - only round cartilage - connects larynx and trachea
  5. Trachea
    • 16-20 C shaped cartilage rings
    • lies between C6-T4
    • divides into two primary bronchi
    • lined with cilia that beat upwards to remove mucus (nicotine slows beating of cilia)
  6. Carina
    • cartilage at split of the trachea
    • has extra nerves that cause coughing if something gets that far down in airway
  7. R main bronchus
    • straighter and shorter
    • enters lung at hilum
  8. L main bronchus
    • longer to go around heart
    • enters lung at hilum
  9. Lobar bronchi
    division of main bronchi at hilum: 2L, 3R
  10. Segmental Bronchi
    Divisions of lobar bronchi: 8-10 on L; 10 on R
  11. Bronchioles
    • branches of segmental bronchi
    • first branches with no cartilage
    • more smooth muscle --> allows for constriction to adjust airflow
    • conduction bronchioles and respiratory bronchioles
  12. Pulmonary alveoli
    • site of gas exchange
    • alveolar ducts and alveolar sacs
  13. Lobes of lungs
    3 on R, 2 on L
  14. Bronchopulmonary segments
    • segment of lung that has its own airway and blood supply and is seperated from other segments by connective tissue
    • can be seperately ausculated to listen for congestion
  15. Bronchopulmonary segments of R lung
    • Superior lobe: Apical, Posterior, Anterior
    • Middle lobe: Lateral, Medial
    • Lower lobe: Superior, Anterior Basal, Medial Basal, Lateral Basal, Posterior Basal
  16. Bronchopulmonary segments of L lung
    • Superior lobe: Apical, Posterior, Anterior, Superior Lingular, Inferior Lingular
    • Inferior lobe: Superior, Anterior Basal, Medial Basal, Lateral Basal, Posterior Basal
  17. Atalectasis
    collapse of one segment of lung due to a blockage of a segmental bronchus
  18. Pneumothorax
    collapsed lung
  19. Thoracocentesis
    insertion of needle through intercostal space into pleural space to obtain fluid sample or remove blood/fluid
  20. Parts of parietal pleura
    • cervical
    • mediastinal
    • costal
    • diaphragmatic
  21. Costodiaphragmatic reccesses
    • space between base of lungs and diaphragmatic surface of parietal pleura
    • two ribs wide
    • can stick chest tube here
  22. Lungs end at:
    • Midclavicular line: 6th rib
    • Midaxillary line: 8th rib
    • Scapular line: 10th rib
  23. Parietal pleura ends at:
    • Midclavicular line: 8th rib
    • Midaxillary line: 10th rib
    • Scapular line: 12th rib
  24. Horizontal fissure of R lung
    Matches up with rib 4
  25. Oblique fissures
    match up with SP T4 posteriorly, rib 6 anteriorly
  26. "Bucket handle" movement
    • occurs in lower ribs
    • costotransverse joints glide/slide to allow lateral portion of ribs to move up and down
  27. "pump handle" action
    • upper ribs pushing sternum anteriorly
    • costotransverse joint is concave/convex which allows anterior end of rib to move up and down
  28. Muscles of Inspiration
    • Quiet: diaphragm, external intercostals
    • Forced/Active: scalenes, SCM, levator costarum, pectoralis major
  29. Muscles of Expiration
    • Quiet: none
    • Forced/Active: transverse thoracis, internal intercostals, all four abdominal muscles, serratus posterior inferior