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This myth states that growth occurs in spurts,
This myth states that differences in preferences or
means, goals, and beliefs may be similar.
This myth states that they are not given the
Life Skills Incompetence
This myth states that the problem is in the mind of
the adults. Increase “throw away” population.
This myth states that the problem is a lack of
functional communication assessment.
“Nothing more to do”
Genetically predetermined, corresponds to turbulent
transition. "storm and stress"
Implication: sensitive to needs, look at
"readiness” to acquire new behaviors
Culturally determined, gradual growth, phenomena of
Implication: consider the cultural and accommodate
(Looks at adolescence in a time of what they call
“Internalized social anxiety")
Behavior controlled because of fear of punishment
-Socially responsible behavior
Implication for treatment: Be aware of
differences. NO research on how to
Attempt to document development in personality and
A struggle between the id (biological/instinctive)
and superego (socially oriented).
Character Formation (psychoanalytic)
Implication: talk about and understand adolescent feeling and don't make rules that cause frustration.
Adolescence is a period of transition. Implication: behaviors are learned by watching.
An effort to combine psychoanalytic and behavioral theory. Stresses reliance on environmental events, imitation of peers and teachers.
Social learning theory
Biology; some things start to develop first then you
see mastery. Environment can only stimulate, modify, and support growth.
General Development Theory
Identity crises and commitment
Very quick change in beliefs,self-esteem
when your belief comes from somebody else and you don't question it
This stage is based on Piaget. Formal operations stage most relevant to adolescents.
Cognitive Stage Theory
Most feared identity crisis: They can't commit to anything. Prerequisite for identity achievement.
“Everybody is watching you”
“I'm not like anyone else, No one has ever been through this”
A human can change, even if they weren't exposed to something at an early age.
How information is received, interpreted, represented, transformed, and used, is which theory?
Information processing theory
What are the three views of the Information processing Theory?
An executive control governs how information is
processed and used.
Assumes behavior varies across developmental levels:
Different experiences lead to uneven development.
Looks at metacomponents used in planning, monitoring
The Three Stages of Moral Development Theory:
- Social conformity
Theory implication states: be sensitive to when someone is ready to learn new concepts or behaviors.
Theory Implication States: culturally determined, more of a multicultural perspective.
Theory implication states: social class differences, social anxiety, but no clear clinical implications.
Theory Implication States: reduce frustrations
Theory Implication States: Look at environmental factors
Theory Implication States: Behaviors learned by watching others-provide role models.
Social Learning Theory
Theory Implication States: be aware of the developmental level, use a developmental hierarchy.
Mitchell’s Stage: Most ego-centric.
Stage I--Early (or child) Adolescence F10-13, M12-14
Mitchell’s Stage: Neither child nor adult
Stage II: Middle Adolescence 13-16
Mitchell’s Stage: Late or adult adolescence 16-20. Physically and mentally adult. Social roles are adolescent.
Stage III---Late (or Adult) Adolescence
How do I feel about myself?
Attributes that individuals believe characterize themselves.
mental organization of experience
application of cognition for purpose
know what you know and what needs to be known to achieve a goal
Changes that occur during Cognitive Development:
- Think about events removed in time and space
- Consider all possible alternatives
- Formulate and test hypotheses
- Inductive and Deductive Reasoning
The ability to talk about talking
Ability to reason systematically and logically about abstract ideas that have no basis in reality. (to dream, to imagine)
Boys outperform girls on traditional tasks (problem solving,math,science) True or False?
Boys are more likely to apply to interpersonal situations. True or False?
When an individual perceives similarities and differences between objects/events, this is called.
A form of argument that contains two premises and a
conclusion that follows logically from those premises.
What are Bloom’s six major levels within the cognitive domain:
Categorized by characteristics, concrete functions, and abstract functions.
How to evaluate thinking
Purposeful and exact
Disciplined and comprehensive
Relevant, accuracy, precise, clear, etc.
(these are all parts of what?)
Figurative language that has little relationship between the literal and figurative: Ex: Beating around the bush.
Opaque (harder to learn)
Figurative language that is a little more closely related, (skating on thin ice) about to be in trouble (easier to learn).
“Every cloud has a silver lining” is an example of a _____.
Words or unattached fragments that is not essential to the message
- Presuppositional (regret, promise)
- Metalinguistic (predict,infer)
- Metacognitive (hypothesize, observe)
Adverbs of Likelihood and magnitude
- Likelihood: possibly, definitely
- Magnitude: Extremely, Considerably
The ability to divide perceived words into their smallest grammatical units.
The awareness of differences and similarities between phonemes
The ability to combine sounds into larger units.
The ability to rapidly recognize and retrieve letters and words.
The ability to distinguish and discriminate letter shapes and sizes
Visual Perceptual Ability
The ability to attend to and to simultaneously decode and comprehend the text.
The ability to perceive relationships between words that rhyme.
Auditory Perceptual Skills
At this stage, they do not understand that writing represents sound.
At this stage, they can spell only simple sight words.
At this stage, they can spell single syllables, spelling most sight words, invented spellings.
At this stage, they can appreciate the connection between meaning and spelling.
At this stage, they are learning that words with the same derivation share the same spelling pattern.
General Idea of a passage
ASK 5W 1H Answer
Conversations, narrations, expository language, persuasion, and negotiations are all types of:
Propositions (idea units) composed of a predicate and related arguments
The Speakers Intentions
The Listener’s Interpretations
What are the series of moves for Conversation:
- introduce a topic
- maintain a topic
- elaborate (expand on a conversation topic)
- change ( how do they change topic-ok new topic)
- request clarification
- respond to requests for clarification
What are the Four Fundamental Rules of Conversation:
- Quantity: informativeness
- Quality: sincerity (are they being honest)
- Relationships: topic management
- Manner: how to be clear
Between oral and literate language
Personal experience narrative (tell about how something happens)
Extended monologues (bring up subject of politics-you may hear a 10 min lecture)
Longer, more elaborate than conversation
"Story Markers" like an introduction and closing
Listener is passive (not a lot of verbal comments)
Speaker needs to be organized, coherent, interesting
MLU is longer than in conversation
In this type of story, whatever has the client's attention: they tell about whatever catches their attention.
In this type of story, characters, objects, events go together because of a perceived relationship, not chronological order.
In this type of story, first use of inference, logical order: (I saw DOG, the dog was brown)
In this type of story, there is no theme or plot.
Chained narrative (focused and unfocused)
In this type of story, there is logical, cause-effect, plot.
This type of discourse includes Comparisons, explanations, and Purpose is to instruct.
What is the biggest difference between narratives and expository language?
The Purpose: The narrative is to entertain and the expository is to inform.
This type of Discourse includes:
Polite/bargain (what if we did this, and then we could do that)
Take the listener's perspective (they learn to figure out what the parent wants)
Can refuse it of others
This type of Discourse includes:
Even older students don't master
Older students are more aware of others wants and needs
Look at long term consequences
More interested in conflict resolution
- Substitution (prefer to do something different)
- Artifacts (ex: amount of perfume someone wears)
What are the two components of Reading?
Decoding and Comprehension
Stage I of reading: Grades 1-2: Phonological Analysis
Stage II of reading: Grades 2-4: Fluency in reading
Stage III of reading: Grades 4-8: Adolescents; having to do a lot more reading; better comp.
Reading to Learn
Stage IV of reading: Grades 8-12: inferences; requires them to look at diff views
Reading for Ideas
Stage V of reading: College/Post High School
The ability to attend to and to simultaneously decode and comprehend text
The ability to understand relationships between complex spoken sentences
The ability to understand the meanings of language
The ability to access stored lexical knowledge
The ability to envision the scene described by the author
The ability to quickly identify the topic/situations of the paragraph
The ability to find evidence in a passage to support logical generalizations and conclusions
Higher Level Cognitive Skills
What are the Processes of Writing?
- 1. Planning: a stage of which they are retrieving information and organizing it
- 2. Generating sentences: they are putting ideas into words/structure
- 3. Revising: rewrite to prove what you have written
A specific second language error is firmly entrenched in the second language
A process wherein a language behavior from the first language is carried over to the second language
Alternating between two languages based on the situation
As they learn to speak a second language consistently, they lose their first language.
Grammatical Contrasts of _______:
Triple negatives (Don't hardly have none)
Double modals (might could)
Habitual state (be verb) (continuous action)
Grammatical Contrasts of ______.
Omitted: articles, subject pronouns
No before verb, "no" used for "don't"
No noun-verb inversion in questions
Grammatical Contrasts of _______.
omitted/uninflected; "to be"
Preposition-misuse or omitted
Auxiliary- omitted or uninflected
Articles- omitted or overgeneralized
different word orders
confusion: subjective/objective, demonstratives
Double marking of negation
-Whole Concept rather than linear
-Move from whole to parts
-No words for time
- No future Tense verbs
-Bragging is rude
-Give advice or information only when asked
-Avoid eye-contact to show respect
-Polite to have a time lapse between asking a question and answering
Native American English
-Lexical differences-some coming into mainstream
-Indirect eye contact when listening, direct when speaking
-Direct questions are harassment
-Personal questions are improper and intrusive
-Competitive participation in conversation
African American English
-Number, color and letter words have less emphasis
-Names and labels are emphasized, especially of relative (family)
-Hiss to get attention
-Direct eye contact is a challenge
-Business conversations are preceded by lengthy unrelated conversations
-Literal translations from native language
-Difficulty with idioms and colloquialisms
-Interrupting is impolite
-Kinship terms are very important
-Public affection is not acceptable
-Lookat the role of speaking the socialization of children
-Concernfor Sociocultural context of language use
-Aware of typical development in children from diverse cultures
Ethnography in Intervention
What are the Purposes we have for Intervention with Older Students?
- 1. We need to know the strengths and weaknesses of the people we are working with
- 2. We need to have them be aware of the problem (when old enough to understand)
- 3. We need to think about the need to have them be active participants
What are the three parts of the “Class Meeting”?
- self reports
- Issues or problems
- Reinforcement and Compliments
This Intervention Approach involves teaching something that is close to their achievement level.
This Intervention Approach involves instruction in academic content areas.
This Intervention Approach involves focusing on equipping students to function in society.
This Intervention Approach involves techniques, principles, or rules that facilitate the acquisition, manipulation, integration, storage, and retrieval of information across situations and settings. (most appropriate)
Learning Strategies Approach
Applying a strategy from one situation to another.
A human comes between the stimulus and the organism/response.
In secondary classes the main activity is this, which is why heavy emphasis should be placed on this ability.
C. Listening (97% of time)
(this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
- Knowledge of barriers and how to avoid: (noise, location)
- Mentally prepared to listen
- Physically prepared
- -Organizing cues (verbal and nonverbal)
- -Main Idea and relevant supporting ideas
- -Questions for Clarification
- -Seek and Use Feedback
- -Apply memory strategies
- -Taking Notes
Post Listening Strategies
- -Add information as needed
- -Write a set of summary statements
- -Skim notes before the next lecture
Enhance Reading Strategies
- -Word level-vocabulary, prefixes, suffixes, multiple meanings
- -Sentence Level-Complex syntax, clauses
- -Discourse level-structures, organization, main ideas
- -Metacognitive Level-self-monitoring, abstract interpretation, high-level language skills