Advanced Language Disorders Exam One

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Advanced Language Disorders Exam One
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2012-02-08 16:29:02
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Advanced Language Disorders Exam One
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  1. This myth states that growth occurs in spurts,
    toughs, plateaus.
    Continuous Growth
  2. This myth states that differences in preferences or
    means, goals, and beliefs may be similar.
    Generation Gap
  3. This myth states that they are not given the
    opportunity
    Life Skills Incompetence
  4. This myth states that the problem is in the mind of
    the adults. Increase “throw away” population.
    Turmoil
  5. This myth states that the problem is a lack of
    functional communication assessment.
    “Nothing more to do”
  6. What Theory?
    Genetically predetermined, corresponds to turbulent
    transition. "storm and stress"

    Implication: sensitive to needs, look at
    "readiness” to acquire new behaviors
    Biological Theory
  7. What Theory?
    Culturally determined, gradual growth, phenomena of
    Western culture.

    Implication: consider the cultural and accommodate
    cultural differences
    Anthropological Theory
  8. What Theory?
    (Looks at adolescence in a time of what they call
    “Internalized social anxiety")

    Behavior controlled because of fear of punishment

    Developmental tasks
    -Gender identity

    -Emotionally Independent

    -Socially responsible behavior

    Implication for treatment: Be aware of
    differences. NO research on how to
    address differences
    Sociological Theory
  9. Attempt to document development in personality and
    cognition.
    Psychological
  10. A struggle between the id (biological/instinctive)
    and superego (socially oriented).
    Character Formation (psychoanalytic)
  11. Implication: talk about and understand adolescent feeling and don't make rules that cause frustration.
    Psychoanalytic
  12. Adolescence is a period of transition. Implication: behaviors are learned by watching.
    Field Theory
  13. An effort to combine psychoanalytic and behavioral theory. Stresses reliance on environmental events, imitation of peers and teachers.
    Social learning theory
  14. Biology; some things start to develop first then you
    see mastery. Environment can only stimulate, modify, and support growth.
    General Development Theory
  15. Identity crises and commitment
    Identity Development
  16. Very quick change in beliefs,self-esteem
    Identity diffused
  17. when your belief comes from somebody else and you don't question it
    foreclosure
  18. This stage is based on Piaget. Formal operations stage most relevant to adolescents.
    Cognitive Stage Theory
  19. Most feared identity crisis: They can't commit to anything. Prerequisite for identity achievement.
    Moratorium
  20. “Everybody is watching you”
    Imaginary Audience
  21. “I'm not like anyone else, No one has ever been through this”
    Personal Fable
  22. A human can change, even if they weren't exposed to something at an early age.
    Cognitive Modifiability
  23. How information is received, interpreted, represented, transformed, and used, is which theory?
    Information processing theory
  24. What are the three views of the Information processing Theory?
    • Neo-Piagetian
    • Theory

    • Skills
    • Theory

    • Triarchic
    • Theory
  25. An executive control governs how information is
    processed and used.
    Neo-Piagetian
  26. Assumes behavior varies across developmental levels:
    Different experiences lead to uneven development.
    Skills theory
  27. Looks at metacomponents used in planning, monitoring
    decision making.
    Triarchic
  28. The Three Stages of Moral Development Theory:
    • Preconventional:
    • punishment/reward

    • Conventional
    • Social conformity

    • Postconventional:
    • humanistic
  29. Theory implication states: be sensitive to when someone is ready to learn new concepts or behaviors.
    Behavioral Theory
  30. Theory Implication States: culturally determined, more of a multicultural perspective.
    Anthropological theory
  31. Theory implication states: social class differences, social anxiety, but no clear clinical implications.
    Sociological theory
  32. Theory Implication States: reduce frustrations
    Psychoanalytic Theory
  33. Theory Implication States: Look at environmental factors
    Field Theory
  34. Theory Implication States: Behaviors learned by watching others-provide role models.
    Social Learning Theory
  35. Theory Implication States: be aware of the developmental level, use a developmental hierarchy.
    Stage Theories
  36. Mitchell’s Stage: Most ego-centric.
    Stage I--Early (or child) Adolescence F10-13, M12-14
  37. Mitchell’s Stage: Neither child nor adult
    Stage II: Middle Adolescence 13-16
  38. Mitchell’s Stage: Late or adult adolescence 16-20. Physically and mentally adult. Social roles are adolescent.
    Stage III---Late (or Adult) Adolescence
  39. How do I feel about myself?
    Self Esteem
  40. Attributes that individuals believe characterize themselves.
    Self Concept
  41. mental organization of experience
    Cognition
  42. application of cognition for purpose
    Thinking
  43. know what you know and what needs to be known to achieve a goal
    Metacognition
  44. Changes that occur during Cognitive Development:
    • Think about events removed in time and space
    • Consider all possible alternatives
    • Formulate and test hypotheses
    • Inductive and Deductive Reasoning
  45. The ability to talk about talking
    Metalinguistics
  46. Ability to reason systematically and logically about abstract ideas that have no basis in reality. (to dream, to imagine)
    Formal operations
  47. Boys outperform girls on traditional tasks (problem solving,math,science) True or False?
    True
  48. Boys are more likely to apply to interpersonal situations. True or False?
    False
  49. When an individual perceives similarities and differences between objects/events, this is called.
    Inductive Reasoning/Analogies
  50. A form of argument that contains two premises and a
    conclusion that follows logically from those premises.
    Deductive Reasoning/Syllogisms
  51. What are Bloom’s six major levels within the cognitive domain:
    • Knowledge
    • Comprehension
    • Application
    • Analysis
    • Synthesis
    • Evaluation
  52. Categorized by characteristics, concrete functions, and abstract functions.
    Conceptual Development
  53. How to evaluate thinking
    Purposeful and exact
    Disciplined and comprehensive
    Relevant, accuracy, precise, clear, etc.

    (these are all parts of what?)
    Critical Thinking
  54. Figurative language that has little relationship between the literal and figurative: Ex: Beating around the bush.
    Opaque (harder to learn)
  55. Figurative language that is a little more closely related, (skating on thin ice) about to be in trouble (easier to learn).
    Transparent
  56. “Every cloud has a silver lining” is an example of a _____.
    Proverb
  57. Words or unattached fragments that is not essential to the message
    Mazes
  58. Literate verbs
    • Presuppositional (regret, promise)
    • Metalinguistic (predict,infer)
    • Metacognitive (hypothesize, observe)
  59. Adverbs of Likelihood and magnitude
    • Likelihood: possibly, definitely
    • Magnitude: Extremely, Considerably
  60. The ability to divide perceived words into their smallest grammatical units.
    Morphological Rules
  61. The awareness of differences and similarities between phonemes
    Phonological Skills
  62. The ability to combine sounds into larger units.
    Synthesis
  63. The ability to rapidly recognize and retrieve letters and words.
    Sequential Memory
  64. The ability to distinguish and discriminate letter shapes and sizes
    Visual Perceptual Ability
  65. The ability to attend to and to simultaneously decode and comprehend the text.
    Attention
  66. The ability to perceive relationships between words that rhyme.
    Auditory Perceptual Skills
  67. At this stage, they do not understand that writing represents sound.
    Preliterate (Emergent)
  68. At this stage, they can spell only simple sight words.
    Letter-Name (Alphabetic)
  69. At this stage, they can spell single syllables, spelling most sight words, invented spellings.
    Within-Word Pattern
  70. At this stage, they can appreciate the connection between meaning and spelling.
    Syllable Juncture
  71. At this stage, they are learning that words with the same derivation share the same spelling pattern.
    Derivational Relations
  72. IF IT FITS
    Vocabulary
  73. ABCDE
    General Idea of a passage
  74. RAP-Q
    Main idea
  75. ASK 5W 1H Answer
    Comprehending details
  76. STOP
    Prewriting
  77. SCAN
    Editing
  78. Conversations, narrations, expository language, persuasion, and negotiations are all types of:
    Discourse
  79. Propositions (idea units) composed of a predicate and related arguments
    Locutions
  80. The Speakers Intentions
    Illocutions
  81. The Listener’s Interpretations
    Perlocutions
  82. What are the series of moves for Conversation:
    • introduce a topic
    • maintain a topic
    • elaborate (expand on a conversation topic)
    • extend
    • change ( how do they change topic-ok new topic)
    • request clarification
    • respond to requests for clarification
  83. What are the Four Fundamental Rules of Conversation:
    • Quantity: informativeness
    • Quality: sincerity (are they being honest)
    • Relationships: topic management
    • Manner: how to be clear
  84. Between oral and literate language

    Personal experience narrative (tell about how something happens)

    Extended monologues (bring up subject of politics-you may hear a 10 min lecture)

    Longer, more elaborate than conversation

    "Story Markers" like an introduction and closing

    Listener is passive (not a lot of verbal comments)

    Speaker needs to be organized, coherent, interesting

    MLU is longer than in conversation
    Narration
  85. In this type of story, whatever has the client's attention: they tell about whatever catches their attention.
    Heap Stories
  86. In this type of story, characters, objects, events go together because of a perceived relationship, not chronological order.
    Sequence Stories
  87. In this type of story, first use of inference, logical order: (I saw DOG, the dog was brown)
    Primitive narratives
  88. In this type of story, there is no theme or plot.
    Chained narrative (focused and unfocused)
  89. In this type of story, there is logical, cause-effect, plot.
    True Narrative
  90. This type of discourse includes Comparisons, explanations, and Purpose is to instruct.
    Expository Language
  91. What is the biggest difference between narratives and expository language?
    The Purpose: The narrative is to entertain and the expository is to inform.
  92. This type of Discourse includes:
    Argument
    Polite/bargain (what if we did this, and then we could do that)
    Take the listener's perspective (they learn to figure out what the parent wants)
    Can refuse it of others
    Persuasion
  93. This type of Discourse includes:
    Even older students don't master
    Older students are more aware of others wants and needs
    Look at long term consequences
    More interested in conflict resolution
    Negotiation
  94. Nonverbal Purposes
    • Repetition
    • Contradiction
    • Substitution (prefer to do something different)
    • Complementation
    • Accentuation
    • Regulation
  95. Nonverbal Components
    • Kinesics
    • Physical
    • Touching
    • Paralanguage
    • Proxemics
    • Artifacts (ex: amount of perfume someone wears)
  96. What are the two components of Reading?
    Decoding and Comprehension
  97. Stage I of reading: Grades 1-2: Phonological Analysis
    Decoding
  98. Stage II of reading: Grades 2-4: Fluency in reading
    Automaticity
  99. Stage III of reading: Grades 4-8: Adolescents; having to do a lot more reading; better comp.
    Reading to Learn
  100. Stage IV of reading: Grades 8-12: inferences; requires them to look at diff views
    Reading for Ideas
  101. Stage V of reading: College/Post High School
    Critical Reading
  102. The ability to attend to and to simultaneously decode and comprehend text
    Attention
  103. The ability to understand relationships between complex spoken sentences
    Syntax
  104. The ability to understand the meanings of language
    Semantics
  105. The ability to access stored lexical knowledge
    Memory
  106. The ability to envision the scene described by the author
    Imagery
  107. The ability to quickly identify the topic/situations of the paragraph
    Pragmatics
  108. The ability to find evidence in a passage to support logical generalizations and conclusions
    Higher Level Cognitive Skills
  109. What are the Processes of Writing?
    • 1. Planning: a stage of which they are retrieving information and organizing it
    • 2. Generating sentences: they are putting ideas into words/structure
    • 3. Revising: rewrite to prove what you have written
  110. A specific second language error is firmly entrenched in the second language
    Fossilization
  111. A process wherein a language behavior from the first language is carried over to the second language
    Interference
  112. Alternating between two languages based on the situation
    Code Switching
  113. As they learn to speak a second language consistently, they lose their first language.
    Language Loss
  114. Grammatical Contrasts of _______:
    Triple negatives (Don't hardly have none)
    Double modals (might could)
    Habitual state (be verb) (continuous action)
    AAE
  115. Grammatical Contrasts of ______.

    Omitted: articles, subject pronouns

    No before verb, "no" used for "don't"

    No noun-verb inversion in questions
    Latino English
  116. Grammatical Contrasts of _______.
    omitted/uninflected; "to be"
    Preposition-misuse or omitted
    Auxiliary- omitted or uninflected
    Articles- omitted or overgeneralized
    Conjunctions-omitted
    different word orders
    confusion: subjective/objective, demonstratives
    Double marking of negation
    Asian English
  117. Semantic
    -Whole Concept rather than linear
    -Move from whole to parts
    -No words for time
    - No future Tense verbs

    Pragmatic
    -Bragging is rude
    -Give advice or information only when asked
    -Avoid eye-contact to show respect
    -Polite to have a time lapse between asking a question and answering
    Native American English
  118. SEMANTIC
    -Lexical differences-some coming into mainstream

    PRAGMATIC
    -Indirect eye contact when listening, direct when speaking
    -Direct questions are harassment
    -Personal questions are improper and intrusive
    -Competitive participation in conversation
    African American English
  119. SEMANTIC
    -Number, color and letter words have less emphasis
    -Names and labels are emphasized, especially of relative (family)

    PRAGMATICS
    -Hiss to get attention
    -Direct eye contact is a challenge
    -Business conversations are preceded by lengthy unrelated conversations
    Latino English
  120. SEMANTICS
    -Literal translations from native language
    -Difficulty with idioms and colloquialisms

    PRAGMATICS
    -Interrupting is impolite
    -Kinship terms are very important
    -Public affection is not acceptable
    Asian English
  121. -Lookat the role of speaking the socialization of children
    -Concernfor Sociocultural context of language use
    -Aware of typical development in children from diverse cultures
    Ethnography in Intervention
  122. What are the Purposes we have for Intervention with Older Students?
    • 1. We need to know the strengths and weaknesses of the people we are working with
    • 2. We need to have them be aware of the problem (when old enough to understand)
    • 3. We need to think about the need to have them be active participants
  123. What are the three parts of the “Class Meeting”?
    • self reports
    • Issues or problems
    • Reinforcement and Compliments
  124. This Intervention Approach involves teaching something that is close to their achievement level.
    Basic Skills
  125. This Intervention Approach involves instruction in academic content areas.
    Tutorial Approach
  126. This Intervention Approach involves focusing on equipping students to function in society.
    Functional Approach
  127. This Intervention Approach involves techniques, principles, or rules that facilitate the acquisition, manipulation, integration, storage, and retrieval of information across situations and settings. (most appropriate)
    Learning Strategies Approach
  128. Applying a strategy from one situation to another.
    Bridging
  129. A human comes between the stimulus and the organism/response.
    Mediation
  130. In secondary classes the main activity is this, which is why heavy emphasis should be placed on this ability.
    A. Speaking
    B. Writing
    C. Listening
    D. Reading
    C. Listening (97% of time)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  131. Prelistening Strategies
    • Knowledge of barriers and how to avoid: (noise, location)
    • Mentally prepared to listen
    • Physically prepared
  132. Listening Strategies
    • -Organizing cues (verbal and nonverbal)
    • -Main Idea and relevant supporting ideas
    • -Questions for Clarification
    • -Seek and Use Feedback
    • -Apply memory strategies
    • -Taking Notes
  133. Post Listening Strategies
    • -ReviewASAP
    • -Add information as needed
    • -Self-question
    • -Write a set of summary statements
    • -Skim notes before the next lecture
  134. Enhance Reading Strategies
    • -Word level-vocabulary, prefixes, suffixes, multiple meanings
    • -Sentence Level-Complex syntax, clauses
    • -Discourse level-structures, organization, main ideas
    • -Metacognitive Level-self-monitoring, abstract interpretation, high-level language skills

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