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Bar chart
A graphical device for depicting categorical data that have been summarized in a frequency, relative frequency, or percent frequency distribution.

Categorical data
Labels or names used to identify categories of like items.

Class midpoint
The value halfway between the lower and upper class limits.

Crosstabulation
A tabular summary of data for two variables. The classes for one variable are represented by the rows; the classes for the other variable are represented by the columns.

Cumulative frequency distribution
A tabular summary of quantitative data showing the number of data values that are less than or equal to the upper class limit of each class.

Cumulative percent frequency distribution
A tabular summary of quantitative data showing the percentage of data values that are less than or equal to the upper class limit of each class.

Cumulative relative frequency distribution
A tabular summary of quantitative data showing the fraction or proportion of data values that are less than or equal to the upper class limit of each class.

Dot plot
A graphical device that summarizes data by the number of dots above each data value on the horizontal axis.

Exploratory data analysis
Methods that use simple arithmetic and easytodraw graphs to summarize data quickly.

Frequency distribution
A tabular summary of data showing the number (frequency) of data values in each of several nonoverlapping classes.

Histogram
A graphical presentation of a frequency distribution, relative frequency distribution, or percent frequency distribution of quantitative data constructed by placing the class intervals on the horizontal axis and the frequencies, relative frequencies, or percent frequencies on the vertical axis.

Ogive
A graph of a cumulative distribution.

Percent frequency distribution
A tabular summary of data showing the percentage of data values in each of several nonoverlapping classes.

Pie chart
A graphical device for presenting data summaries based on subdivision of a circle into sectors that correspond to the relative frequency for each class.

Quantitative data
Numerical values that indicate how much or how many.

Relative frequency distribution
A tabular summary of data showing the fraction or proportion of data values in each of several nonoverlapping classes.

Scatter diagram
A graphical presentation of the relationship between two quantitative variables. One variable is shown on the horizontal axis and the other variable is shown on the vertical axis.

Scatter diagram
A graphical presentation of the relationship between two quantitative variables. One variable is shown on the horizontal axis and the other variable is shown on the vertical axis.

Simpson’s paradox
Conclusions drawn from two or more separate crosstabulations that can be reversed when the data are aggregated into a single crosstabulation.

Stemandleaf display
An exploratory data analysis technique that simultaneously rank orders quantitative data and provides insight about the shape of the distribution.

Trendline
A line that provides an approximation of the relationship between two variables.

