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2012-02-08 18:51:11


The Living Fabric
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  1. Tissue specimens must be FIXED (preserved) and sectioned (sliced) thinly enough to allow light transmission.
    Tissue sectioned must be STAINED with dyes that bind to different parts of the cell in slightly different ways so that anatomical structures are distinguished from one another.
  2. An epithelium is a SHEET OF CELLS that covers a body surface or lines a cavity.
    Epithelium occurs in the body as COVERING or LINING epithelium, and as glandular epithelium.
  3. Special Characterists of Epithelium
    Protection, Absorbsion, Filteration, Excretion, Secretion, Sensory Reception
    Composed of CLOSELY PACKED cells with little extracellular matrial between.
  4. Adjacent epithelial cells are bound together by specialized contacts such as desmosomes and TIGHT JUNCTIONS
    *Exhibits polarity by having an apical surface (free) and a BASIL SURFACE (attached)
  5. Supported by the underlying connective tissue.
    Innervated but AVASCULAR
  6. Has a HIGH regeneration capacity.
    The first name indicates the number of layers present, either SIMPLE (one) or STRATIFIED (more than one)
  7. The second name desribes the shape of the CELLS
    Simple epithelia are mostly concerned with absorption, secrestion, and filtration.
  8. Simple squamous epithelium is a single layer of FISH SCALE SHAPED CELLS (endotheluim)
    *Simple cuboidal epithelium is a single layer of cube-shaped cells forming the smallest ducts of glands and many KIDNEY TUBULES
  9. Simple columnar pithelium is a single layer of column-shaped cells that line the digestive TRACT.
    Stratified epithelia's main function is PROTECTION
  10. Stratified squamous epithelium is composed of several layers with the cells on the free surface being squamous shaped and the underlying cells being CUBOIDAL or columnar in shape.
    TRANSITIONAL epithelium forms the lining of the hollow organs of the urinary system that as they fill.
  11. Grandular Epithelia
    *Endorine glands are ductless glands that secrete HORMONES by exocytosis directly into the BLOOD & LYMPH
    Exocrine glands have ducts and secrete thier product onto a surface or into body cavities.
  12. Exocrine secretions in humans may be merocrine, which are products released through exocytosis, or holocrine, which are synthesized products released when the cell ruptures.
    Cells die for thier cause.
  13. The major function of connective tissue are binding and SUPPORT, protection, INSULATION and transportation
    ALL connective tissue arise from an embryotic tissue called MESENCHYME
  14. Connective tissue ranges from AVASCULAR to HIGHLY vascularized.
    GROUND is the unstructured material that fills the space between the cells and contains the fibers.
  15. Fibers
  16. Fibers of the connective tissue provide SUPPORT.
    COLAGEN FIBERS are extremely strong and provide high tensile strength to the connective tissue.
  17. Elast
  18. Elastic fibers contain ELASTIN, which allows them t
  19. Elastic fibers contain ELASTIN, which allows them to be stretched and to recoil.
    Reticular fibers are fine, collagenous fibers that form NETWORKS.
  20. LOOSE CONNECTIVE TISSUE is one of the two subclasses of connective tissue proper.
    Areolar connective tissue serves to BIND BODY PARTS TOGETHER while allowing them to over one another, wraps small blood vessels and nerves, surrounds glands, and forms the subcutaneous tissue.
  21. ADIPOSE (fat) tissue is a richly vascularized tissue that functions in nutrient PROTECTION & INSULATION
    Dense connective tissue is one of the two subclasses of connective tissue.
  22. Dense regular connective tissue contains closely packed bundles of collagen fibers runni the same direction and makes up TENDIONS & LIGAMENTS
    Cartilage lacks NERVE FIBERS and is AVASCULAR
  23. Hyaline cartilage is the most abundant cartilage, providing firm support with some pliability.
    Elastic cartilage is found where strength and exceptional stretchability are needed, such as the EXTERNAL EAR.
  24. * FIBROCARTILAGE is found where strong support and the ability to withstand heavy pressure are required, such as the intervertebral discs.
    Bone (osseous tissue) has an execeptional ability to support and protect body structures due to its hardness, which determined by the additional COLLGEN FIBERS and calcium salts found in the extracellular matrix. (Lacuane, Calcium Salts, Blood Vessels)*
  25. Blood is classified as a CONNECTIVE TISSUE because it developed from mesenchyme, and consists of blood cells and plasma protiens surrounded by blood plasma.
    Nervous tissue is the main component of the nervous system, which regulates and controls body functions.
  26. Nervous tissue is composed of two types of cells.
    NEURONS are specilaized cells that generate and CONDUCT NERVE IMPLUSES.
    Supporting cells are nonconductive cells that support, insulate, and protect the nuerons.
  27. Muscle tissue are highly, well-vascularized tissue responsible for movement.
    • Skeletal muscle attaches to the skeleton and PRODUCE VOLENTARY MOVEMENT.
    • CARDIAC muscle is responsible for the involentary movement of the heart.
    • Smooth muscle is found in the walls of the HOLLOW ORGANS.