91.5 % is water, 7 % is proteins, 1.5 % is solutes other than proteins
replenish 2 million/ sec, BiConcave surfce can affect the life span of the RBC, mature after 1-2 days of being released from bone marrow.
Live only 1-2 days but T & B cells can exist for years. WBC
Granular Leukocytes: Neutrophils
Largest in #, first responder to bacterial invastion, phagocytes and lysozome action
Granular Leukocytes: Eosinophils
Release enzymes that combat inflammation in allergic reactions involved in some bacterial and parasitic worms
Granular Leukocytes: Basophils
intensify inflammatory reactions
Agranular Leukocytes: Lymphocytes
B Cells (Antibody), T Cells (Viruses, Fungi, Transplanted Cells, Cancer Cells), NK Cells (Infectious Microbes and Certain Cancers)
Agranular Leukocytes: Macrophages
Larges WBC, can be fixed or wandering. Macrophages migrate to site of infection after neutrophiles in large numbers clean up debris post infection.
What is Erythropoiesis?
The process of developing red blood cells.
What hormone regulates Erythropoiesis?
EPO (erythropoietin) is the hormone produced by the kidney regulates it.
A protein that is produced when an antigen is introduced in the body. Can bind to the antigen and neutralize its treat presented by the foreign molecule.
A foreign molecule that has the potential to induce immune responses, on the surface of RBC
- a sequence of responses that stops bleeding when blood vessels are injured.
Vascular Spasm- when blood vessel is damaged the smooth muscle contracts immediately
Platelet Plug- positive feedback stops blood loss by plugging injury
3 Steps for Platelet plug?
Platelet adhesion: encourages platelets to stick to damaes blood vessel
Platelet release action: platelets contact each other and release chemicals which activate nearby plates and encourage vascular spasm to decreased blood flow.
Platelet aggregation/ platelet plug- surrounding platelets gather at site of injury and form an aggregate to help stop blood loss.
outside the blood vessel, rapid, damaged tissue releases tissue factor that is eventually converted to prothrombinase
takes several minutes, happens inside the blood vessel, endothelial cells become damaged and send signals to release prothrombinase but there are several reactions that occur. Similar to Extrinsic because they both complete hemostasis and fom prothrombinase and clot blood.
What is clot retraction? and what is responsible for it occuring?
When the fibrin clot tightens over time. Platelets contain a very hight concentration of actin & mysosin which are stimulated to contract in aggregated platelets. This pulls the edges of damaged wound together which decreases the risk of further damage and since it is a smaller area to heal it is a speedy in repair of damage.
What is the total volume of blood in the human body?
What is the major component of plasma?
Characteristics of plasma proteins?
Albumin, Globulins, and Fibrinogen
Most Common Formed Elements in the blood
RBC, WBC, platelets
What is hematopoiesis?
Blood Cell Production
Describe a hemoglobin molecule
Red protein of red blood cells consisting of four globin proteins with an iron containing red pigment, heme, bound to each globin protein; transport oxygen and CO2
Biconcave disk; no nucleus; contains hemoglobin (colors the cell red)
What is erythropoietin
it is a glycoprotein and protein hormone that stimulates red blood cell formation in red bone marrow
What do defective erythrocyes bread down into
Biconcave disk, no nucleus, contrains hemoglobin, which colors the cell red, transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
spherical cells each with a nucleus white in color because they lack hemoglobin, there are 5 types each with specific function
Minute fragments of cells derived from megakaryocytes, play an important role in preventing blood loss
What is heparin and what does it do?
Heparin is an anticoagulant it inactivates thrombin without thrombin, fibrogen is not converted to fibring and no clot forms.
What is anti thrombin?
it is an anticoagulant deactivate thrombin that will stop blood from clotting
Healing process after clot formation?
anticoagulants begin working and fibrinolysis starts
plasma proteins, very specific each can only combine with certain antigens
Hemolytic disease in newborns
Destruction of red blood cells in the fetus or newborn caused by antibodies produced in the RH- negative mother acting on the Rh- positive blood of the fetus or newborn.
Cross matching of blood
Donors blood cells are mixed with the recipient's cells. The donor's blood is considered safe for transfusion only if no aggulation occurs in either match
What is a Hematocrit
The percentage of total blood volume composed of red blood cells
What can cause clotting deficiencies
Not enough Vit L, Calcium, not enough von wilderborns or possibly they might be a hemophiliac
WBC with granules that strains equally with either basic or acidic dyes; phagocytic WBC
nongranulocytic WBC involved in the immune system; there are several types of lymphocytes with diverse functions, including anti body production, allergic reactions, graft rejections, tumor control and regulation of the immune system
WBC with granules that stain red with acidic dyes; inhibits inflammation
WBC with granules that stain purple with basic dyes, promotes inflammation and prevents clot formation
A type of WBC that transforms to become a macrophage, Largest WBC