Bio 212 Blood

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Bio 212 Blood
2012-02-08 17:34:15
Blood Anatomy Physiology Study

The life of an anatomy student
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  1. Where do blood cells form after birth?
    Red Bone Marrow
  2. What % of the blood is plasma VS Formed elements
    55 % plasma, 45 % is formed elements
  3. What is found in the Plasma of blood
    91.5 % is water, 7 % is proteins, 1.5 % is solutes other than proteins
  4. Erythrocytes
    replenish 2 million/ sec, BiConcave surfce can affect the life span of the RBC, mature after 1-2 days of being released from bone marrow.
  5. Leukocytes
    Live only 1-2 days but T & B cells can exist for years. WBC
  6. Granular Leukocytes: Neutrophils
    Largest in #, first responder to bacterial invastion, phagocytes and lysozome action
  7. Granular Leukocytes: Eosinophils
    Release enzymes that combat inflammation in allergic reactions involved in some bacterial and parasitic worms
  8. Granular Leukocytes: Basophils
    intensify inflammatory reactions
  9. Agranular Leukocytes: Lymphocytes
    B Cells (Antibody), T Cells (Viruses, Fungi, Transplanted Cells, Cancer Cells), NK Cells (Infectious Microbes and Certain Cancers)
  10. Agranular Leukocytes: Macrophages
    Larges WBC, can be fixed or wandering. Macrophages migrate to site of infection after neutrophiles in large numbers clean up debris post infection.
  11. What is Erythropoiesis?
    The process of developing red blood cells.
  12. What hormone regulates Erythropoiesis?
    EPO (erythropoietin) is the hormone produced by the kidney regulates it.
  13. Antibody
    A protein that is produced when an antigen is introduced in the body. Can bind to the antigen and neutralize its treat presented by the foreign molecule.
  14. Antigen
    A foreign molecule that has the potential to induce immune responses, on the surface of RBC
  15. Hemostasis
    • - a sequence of responses that stops bleeding when blood vessels are injured.
    • Vascular Spasm- when blood vessel is damaged the smooth muscle contracts immediately
    • Platelet Plug- positive feedback stops blood loss by plugging injury
    • Blood Cloting
  16. 3 Steps for Platelet plug?
    • Platelet adhesion: encourages platelets to stick to damaes blood vessel
    • Platelet release action: platelets contact each other and release chemicals which activate nearby plates and encourage vascular spasm to decreased blood flow.
    • Platelet aggregation/ platelet plug- surrounding platelets gather at site of injury and form an aggregate to help stop blood loss.
  17. Extrinsic pathways
    outside the blood vessel, rapid, damaged tissue releases tissue factor that is eventually converted to prothrombinase
  18. Intrinsic Pathways
    takes several minutes, happens inside the blood vessel, endothelial cells become damaged and send signals to release prothrombinase but there are several reactions that occur. Similar to Extrinsic because they both complete hemostasis and fom prothrombinase and clot blood.
  19. What is clot retraction? and what is responsible for it occuring?
    When the fibrin clot tightens over time. Platelets contain a very hight concentration of actin & mysosin which are stimulated to contract in aggregated platelets. This pulls the edges of damaged wound together which decreases the risk of further damage and since it is a smaller area to heal it is a speedy in repair of damage.
  20. What is the total volume of blood in the human body?
    8 %
  21. What is the major component of plasma?
  22. Characteristics of plasma proteins?
    Albumin, Globulins, and Fibrinogen
  23. Most Common Formed Elements in the blood
    RBC, WBC, platelets
  24. What is hematopoiesis?
    Blood Cell Production
  25. Hematocytoblasts
    Stem Cells
  26. Describe a hemoglobin molecule
    Red protein of red blood cells consisting of four globin proteins with an iron containing red pigment, heme, bound to each globin protein; transport oxygen and CO2
  27. Describe erythrocytes
    Biconcave disk; no nucleus; contains hemoglobin (colors the cell red)
  28. What is erythropoietin
    it is a glycoprotein and protein hormone that stimulates red blood cell formation in red bone marrow
  29. What do defective erythrocyes bread down into
  30. Erythrocytes
    Biconcave disk, no nucleus, contrains hemoglobin, which colors the cell red, transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
  31. Leukocytes
    spherical cells each with a nucleus white in color because they lack hemoglobin, there are 5 types each with specific function
  32. Platelets
    Minute fragments of cells derived from megakaryocytes, play an important role in preventing blood loss
  33. What is heparin and what does it do?
    Heparin is an anticoagulant it inactivates thrombin without thrombin, fibrogen is not converted to fibring and no clot forms.
  34. What is anti thrombin?
    it is an anticoagulant deactivate thrombin that will stop blood from clotting
  35. Healing process after clot formation?
    anticoagulants begin working and fibrinolysis starts
  36. Antibodies
    plasma proteins, very specific each can only combine with certain antigens
  37. Hemolytic disease in newborns
    Destruction of red blood cells in the fetus or newborn caused by antibodies produced in the RH- negative mother acting on the Rh- positive blood of the fetus or newborn.
  38. Cross matching of blood
    Donors blood cells are mixed with the recipient's cells. The donor's blood is considered safe for transfusion only if no aggulation occurs in either match
  39. What is a Hematocrit
    The percentage of total blood volume composed of red blood cells
  40. What can cause clotting deficiencies
    Not enough Vit L, Calcium, not enough von wilderborns or possibly they might be a hemophiliac
  41. Neutrophils
    WBC with granules that strains equally with either basic or acidic dyes; phagocytic WBC
  42. Lymphocytes
    nongranulocytic WBC involved in the immune system; there are several types of lymphocytes with diverse functions, including anti body production, allergic reactions, graft rejections, tumor control and regulation of the immune system
  43. Eosinophils
    WBC with granules that stain red with acidic dyes; inhibits inflammation
  44. Basophils
    WBC with granules that stain purple with basic dyes, promotes inflammation and prevents clot formation
  45. Monocytes
    A type of WBC that transforms to become a macrophage, Largest WBC
  46. Functions of blood
    Transports gases, nutrients, and waste products.