CGFO Debt

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shark522
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133848
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CGFO Debt
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2012-02-08 19:54:24
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Debt flashcards
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  1. Additional Bonds Test
    The conditions under which an issuer is permitted, pursuant to the terms of the resolution or indenture, to issue additional bonds on parity with an outstanding obligation. For example, an issuer may be permitted to issue additional bonds when pledged revenues are sufficient to cover existing and projected debt service by some specified multiple (e.g. 1.25).
  2. Arbitrage
    In the municipal market, arbitrage refers to the difference between the tax-exempt interest rate paid by the borrower and the interest rate at which the proceeds of the issue are invested. The Internal Revenue Code contains specific regulations concerning the amount that can be earned from the investment of tax-exempt proceeds.
  3. Bank-Qualified Obligation
    Obligations issued by governments that do not expect to sell in excess of $10 million of “qualified tax-exempt obligations” in a calendar year. The issuer must designate its securities as “qualified tax-exempt obligations” at the time of issuance, and the securities may not be private-activity bonds. The designation of bonds as qualified tax-exempt obligations is an exception to the general rule of Section 265(b)(1).
  4. Basis Point
    An expression of interest equal to one-hundredth of a percent (0.01%) 1 b.p. = 1%
  5. Bearer Bonds
    Bonds that do not identify the owner. Possession is considered to be ownership. Current federal law requires that all debt obligations with a maturity greater than one year be issued in registered form; these are known as registered bonds.
  6. Bond Bank
    A financing structure used to pool a number of distinct borrowings to take advantage of reduced issuance costs and a common reserve. In many cases, bond banks are administered by large jurisdictions (often states) and the issuer covenants to create and/or make up a deficiency in a reserve fund available to program participants.
  7. Bond Indenture
    A legal document that spells out the specific terms and conditions under which bonds may be issued. The indenture is used when a trustee is involved in a financing and forms the basis of the trustee’s responsibilities to bondholders (also called the “trust indenture”).
  8. Bond Purchase Agreement (BPA)
    The agreement signed by the issuer and the underwriter(s) spelling out the price to be paid for the bonds and the interest rates that the bonds are to bear. The bond purchase agreement also details any opinions or certifications to be delivered on the date of closing (delivery).
  9. Bond Resolution or Bond Ordinance
    The act of the governing body that authorizes the issuance of bonds (sometimes called an “Authorizing Resolution or Ordinance”). State statutes generally govern the procedures that need to be followed by the governing body to permit issuance of debt.Bond Ordinance = More formal term
  10. Bond-Year Dollars
    Bond-year dollars are calculated by adding the results of the amount of bonds outstanding times the number of years they are outstanding.
  11. Call or Call Provision
    The conditions under which a debt obligation may be redeemed prior to its stated maturity. Such provisions specify the date on which an obligation may be redeemed and the price investors will receive if their bonds are redeemed. Such provisions typically take one of the following forms: Mandatory, optional or extraordinary redemption provisions.
  12. Call Premium
    The price an issuer will pay to investors to redeem its obligations prior to their stated maturity date. The call premium is expressed as a percent of the par value.
  13. Coupon Interest Rate
    The rate of interest paid on a specific bond. The coupon interest rate appears on the face of the bond or, in the case of book-entry only bonds, on the bond record maintained by the securities depository.
  14. Capital Budget
    A spending plan for capital outlays for the current or upcoming fiscal year. The capital budget is usually the first year of a multi-year capital improvement plan.
  15. Certificate of Participation
    A security that represents a share of an issuer’s lease payment. When a municipality finances a public facility through a lease-purchase transaction, the interest in that government’s lease payment often is assigned to a third party that issues certificates of participation. The certificates represent a share of the lease payment to be received by the investor.
  16. Closing Date
    The date on which the issuer legally issues its debt or other obligation. On that date, the purchaser provides the funds to the issuer and the issuer delivers the securities to the purchaser. At closing, bond counsel will provide the approving legal opinion.
  17. Coverage Covenant
    A pledge by the issuer, in the trust indenture or bond resolution, to maintain a specified level of coverage of debt service requirements from pledged revenues.
  18. Credit Enhancement
    A guarantee by a third party in a debt financing that strengthens the credit quality behind the obligation.
  19. Dated Date
    The date on which a debt obligation begins to accrue interest. For example, if a bond issue was dated July 1 and was delivered to the purchaser (closed) on July 14, the purchaser would need to pay the issuer accrued interest from the dated date (July 1) up to but not including the delivery date (July 14).
  20. Defeasance
    The provision for payment of an outstanding obligation with cash or securities that are placed in escrow until the due date.
  21. Delivery Date
    The date on which debt obligations are delivered to the purchaser. This is also known as the closing date.
  22. Denomination
    The face value, or par amount, of a bond that is due at maturity. Most municipal bonds are issued in denominations of $5,000 or integral multiples thereof.
  23. Derivative Products
    A term used to describe a wide range of financial products derived from more conventional securities or debt service cash flows. Often contractual arrangements, derivative products include interest rate swaps, inverse floaters and other hybrids.
  24. Double-Barrel Bond
    A bond that has two pledged sources of security. Most often a double-barrel bond is a general obligation that is initially secured by some specified revenue stream.
  25. 501(c)(3) Bond
    Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code refers to organizations that are traditional charitable organizations, including but not limited to those organized for religious, scientific, literary, or educational purposes.
  26. General Obligation (GO) Bonds
    Bonds that are secured by the issuer’s full-faith–and-credit pledge. Most GO bonds are backed by the issuer’s ability to level an ad valorem tax in an amount sufficient to meet debt service requirements. Some GO bonds, known as limited-tax GO bonds, are backed by the pledge of a defined portion of the issuer’s general taxing power.
  27. Issue Structure
    The repayment schedule for a bond or other obligation that is set out in the legal documents at the time of issue.
  28. Lease-Purchase Agreement
    An agreement in which one party provides a facility or equipment in exchange for a pledge from the other to make regular lease payments. Upon completion of the lease term, the lessee assumes ownership of the item. Most lease-purchase agreements provide that the leasee will continue to make lease payments only as long as its governing body appropriates funds for that purpose. No council vote required.
  29. Legal Opinion
    An opinion concerning the legality of a municipal bond issue. Such opinions usually address the legal authority of the issuer to sell bonds, the issuer’s compliance with all procedural requirements prior to issuance, and the tax status of the bonds as an investment. To ensure the marketability of their offerings, govt’s usually retain services of firms that specialize in municipal bond issues.
  30. Level Debt Service Maturity Schedule
    A debt repayment structure that is characterized by lower principal maturity amounts in the early years which gradually increase. When these principal repayment requirements are combined with interest payments, the result is a level debt service payment, like a home mortgage
  31. Level Principal Maturity Schedule
    A debt repayment structure that provides for equal principal payments in each year. When combined with interest requirements, this structure results in a debt service schedule that is higher in the early years.
  32. Maturity Amount
    The amount of an issue’s principal, or par value, that is scheduled to be redeemed on a given date.
  33. Maturity Date
    The date on which a given security is scheduled for redemption.
  34. Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board (MSRB)
    • Created in 1975 as a product of amendments to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the MSRB is an independent, self-regulatory organization. The 15-member MSRB is
    • charged with providing regulatory oversight of dealers, dealer banks, and
    • brokers in the municipal securities industry.
  35. Nationally Recognized Bond Counsel
    Firms that have experience providing legal opinions related to the issuance of municipal bond issues. The market generally considers firms listed in The Bond Buyer’s Municipal Marketplace to be nationally recognized.
  36. (NIC)
    A method used to calculate the overall interest cost of a borrowing. The NIC is calculated by dividing total interest payments over the life of the issue by total bond year dollars. Total bond year dollars is the sum of the products of the amount of bonds outstanding and the number of years they are outstanding.Discount: Add to total interestPremium: Subtract from total interest
  37. Official Statement
    A disclosure document prepared in connection with a specific offering which provides detailed information concerning security
  38. Par Value
    The face or maturity value of a security.
  39. Preliminary Official Statement
    A disclosure document prepared in connection with a specific offering that provides detailed information concerning security provisions, maturity dates and amounts, optional redemption provisions, and other relevant credit data. The POS is prepared and circulated as a marketing tool prior to sale of securities.
  40. Present Value
    The sum of future payments due discounted back to the present date at an assumed rate of interest.
  41. Primary Market
    A term used to describe the underwriting, sale, or placement of securities at the time of original pricing.
  42. Revolving Loan Fund
    A centrally administered (usually by a state) fund that makes loans to subordinate units of government to address specific funding objectives. Loan repayments are recycled into additional loans, grants and state monies. Example: Wastewater treatment funds created pursuant to Water Quality Act of 1987.
  43. Rule 15c2-12
    A rule promulgated by the Securities and exchange Commission that requires underwriters of municipal obligations to obtain and review certain disclosure materials prior to making a commitment to purchase securities. Also continuing disclosure via EMMA
  44. Secondary Market
    A term used to describe the sale or trading of securities at market prices – not at the time of original offer.
  45. Take-Down
    A component of underwriting spread, take-down is a fee expressed either as dollars per thousand dollars of par value or as a percent of par value. Take-down often is referred to as the sales commission component of the underwriter spread.
  46. Taxable Equivalent Yield
    The yield an investor in a certain tax bracket would need to obtain on a taxable investment to equal the yield on a tax-exempt security. The equation is: tax-exempt yield/(1-investor’s tax bracket)=taxable equivalent yield.
  47. True Interest Cost (TIC)
    A method of calculating the overall cost of a financing that takes into account the time value of money. The TIC is the rate of interest that will discount all future payments so that the sum of their present value equals the issue proceeds.
  48. Underwriter
    In the municipal market, the term is used broadly to refer to the firm that purchases a securities offering from a governmental issuer. In some cases, the underwriter might be a team or syndicate of firms that have joined together to submit a bid for the issue.
  49. Underwriting Spread
    The compensation paid to the underwriter for the purchase of the governmental obligation. The underwriting spread is expressed as either dollars per thousand dollars of par value (e.g., $6.50) or as a percent of par value (0.65%). Underwriting spread consists of four components: Take-down, management fee, underwriting fee / risk and expenses.
  50. Taxable Bonds
    Governments can issue taxable debt for: A private activity; to avoid arbitrage problems; to get around debt volume caps; fund pension obligations.
  51. Bond Pool
    A municipal bond offering in which a sponsor sells an issue of bonds with proceeds used by a number of cities or other tax-exempt organizations. The pool permits small cities with low borrowing requirements to reduce the underwriting and interest costs inherent in a small issue.
  52. Nationally Recognized Municipal Security Information Repository (NRMSIR)
    An institution designated by the SEC as being eligible to receive disclosure documents from issuers. Bonds offered for sale after July 1, 1995 require the issuer to disclose financial data and material events to a NRMSIR.
  53. Overlapping Debt
    The debt of a political entity, such as a state where its tax base overlaps the same tax base of another political entity, such as a city within the state.
  54. Tax Increment Financing (TIF)
    Tax increment financing (TIF) allows cities to create special districts and to make public improvements within those districts that will generate private-sector development. The tax base is frozen at the predevelopment level and taxes derived from increases in assessed values (the tax increment) either go to retire bonds issued to originate the development, or leverage future growth in the district.
  55. Sinking Fund(s)
    A fund accumulated and set aside by a government agency for the purpose of periodically redeeming municipal bonds.
  56. Average Maturity
    The average length of time an issue of serial bonds and/or term bonds with mandatory sinking funds and/or estimated prepayments is expected to be outstanding. It also can be the average maturity of a bond portfolio.
  57. Bond Register
    A record, kept by a transfer agent or registrar on behalf of the issuer, that lists the names and addresses of the holders of registered bonds.
  58. Rating Agencies
    A company that assigns credit ratings for issuers of certain types of debt obligations as well as the debt instruments themselves. In some cases, the servicers of the underlying debt are also given ratings.
  59. Build America Bonds
    Taxable municipal bonds that carry special tax credits and federal subsidies for either the bond issuer or the bondholder. Build America Bonds were created under Section 1531 of Title I of Division B of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act that U.S. President Barack Obama signed into law on February 17, 2009
  60. EMMA
    The Electronic Municipal Market Access system, or EMMA, is a comprehensive, centralized online source (web site) for free access to municipal disclosures, market transparency data and educational materials about the municipal securities market.

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