A&P1 test 2

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  1. What model do enzymes work by?
    "lock and Key model"
  2. water makes up approx what percent of:
    1) human body
    2) human blood
    • 50-60% of human body
    • 92% of human blood
  3. define solubility
    the abilility of one substance to disolve in another
  4. Define Induced Fit Hypothesis:
    enzymes change shape to accommodate the shape of specific reactants
  5. Electrolyte:
    any substance containing free ions
  6. Heterogeneous mixture:
    do not have a uniform composition throughout themixture and can be separated physically
  7. Homogeneous mixture:
    same composition throughout with uniform appearance
  8. Acid:
    a proton donor or any substance that releases hydrogen ions
  9. Base:
    a proton acceptor or any substance that binds to oraccepts hydrogen ions
  10. Salt:
    a compound consisting of a cation other than a hydrogen ion and an anionother than a hydroxide ion. Example: NaCl
  11. Buffer:
    • an ionic compound that resists changes in its pH
    • When H+ added, buffer removes it
    • When H+ removed, buffer replaces it
  12. Acid= H+ __ OH-
  13. Base = H+ __ OH-
  14. Neutral = H+ __ OH-
  15. Oxygen (O2):
    required in the final step in theseries of reactions used to extract energy from food.
  16. Carbon dioxide (CO2):
    • produced during the catabolism of organic compounds.
    • Metabolic waste product.
    • Combines with water in plasma and
    • forms H+ thus affecting acid/base balance
  17. Inorganic Chemistry:
    generally, substances that do not contain carbon

    Water, oxygen, calcium phosphate, metalionsExceptions: CO, CO2, and HCO3-
  18. Organic Chemistry:
    study of carbon-containing substances
  19. Carbohydrates:
    • composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen.
    • Divided into monosaccharides, disaccharides, polysaccharides
    • Energy sources and structure
  20. Lipids:
    • composed mostly of carbon, hydrogen,oxygen.
    • Relatively insoluble in water.
    • Functions: protection, insulation,component of cell membranes, energy source
  21. Proteins:
    • composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sometimes iodine.
    • Functions: regulate processes, aid
    • transport, protection, muscle contraction, structure, energy
  22. Nucleic Acids:
    • composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus.
    • Examples: DNA, RNA, ATP(nucleotide)
  23. The building blocks of carbohydrates are?
  24. Disaccharides:
    • Two simple sugars bound together by
    • dehydration synthesis
    • Examples: sucrose, lactose, maltose
  25. Polysaccharides
    • Long chains of many monosaccharides.
    • Glycogen formed by animals.
    • Starch and cellulose formed by plants
    • Starch in food is used as a
    • source of monosaccharides
    • Cellulose in food acts as fiber
    • (bulk) in the diet
  26. Lipids:
    • Ingested and broken down by hydrolysis
    • Triglycerides: composed of glycerol and three
    • fatty acids.
    • Functions: protection, insulation, energy
    • source
  27. Saturated fats –
    contains all single bonds inthe carbon chain, which produces a more rigid structure. Solid at room temperature
  28. Unsaturated fats–
    • contains one (mono) or more(poly) double bonds in the carbon chain, which produces a more relaxedstructure. Liquid at room temperature.
    • Better because they do not stickto the inside of blood vessels.
  29. Trans fats –
    • unsaturated fats that are artificially altered to be more saturated.
    • Are the highest CV risk fat
  30. Lipids:
    • Polar (hydrophilic) at one end; nonpolar
    • (hydrophobic) at the other.
    • For example, water is a polar
    • molecule and oil is a non-polar molecule. A polar and non-polar combination
    • will not form a solution; therefore, oil and water won't form a solution.
    • Function: important structural component of cell
    • membranes
  31. Lipids:
    • Cholesterol, bile salts, estrogen,
    • testosterone.
    • Carbon atoms arranged in four
    • rings
    • Functions: physiological regulators and
    • component of cell membranes
  32. true or false
    Cholesterol cannot dissolve in the blood. It has to be transported to and from the cells by
    carriers called lipoproteins
  33. Low-density
    lipoprotein, or LDL
    • is known as “bad”
    • cholesterol.
    • Composed mainly of cholesterol and have
    • very little protein.
    • Primarily responsible for depositing
    • cholesterol within arteries.
    • High levels of LDLs are associated with
    • an increased risk for coronary heart disease.
  34. High-density lipoprotein =
    HDL, is known as “good” cholesterol. Composed mainly of proteins, with onlysmall amounts of cholesterol.Help remove cholesterol from artery wallsand transport it to the liver for elimination from the body. Higher HDL levels actually protectagainst coronary heart disease
  35. what is the building blocks of protein?
    amino acids
  36. Peptide bonds:
    covalent bonds formed between aminoacids during protein synthesis
  37. dipeptide =
    a molecule consisting of two amino acids joined by a single peptide bond.
  38. Polypeptide:
    A peptide consisting of 2 or more aminoacids
  39. why are essential amino acids essential?
    • because the body does not synthesize them, making it essential to include them in one's diet in order to
    • obtain them.
  40. Nonessential amino acids
    The amino acids that your body can produce on its own.
  41. Structural proteins
    • Proteins with the primary purpose of producing the essential structural components of the cell.
    • Provide stiffness and rigidity to otherwise-fluid biological components
  42. Functional proteins:
    • Have the ability to carry out metabolic processes.
    • Example: enzymes
  43. what is the building blocks of DNA and RNA
  44. Nucleotides =
    • Composed of a five-carbon sugar, a nitrogenous base, and a phosphate
    • Include the nucleic acids (DNAand RNA) and ATP
  45. what does DNA stand for
    Deoxyribonucleic acid
  46. In humans, DNA is located primarily inside...
    the cell nucleus, but some DNA is also located in mitochondria
  47. The main role of DNA is?
    the long-term storage of information
  48. what are the 4 nitrogenous bases of DNA and which bond with which?
    Adenine (A) binds with thymine (T), Cystosine (C) binds with guanine (G)
  49. what does RNA stand for
    RNA: Ribonucleic acid
  50. in stead of thymine RNA has what as its 4th nitrogenous base
    (U) Uracil
  51. Adenosine
    Triphosphate (ATP)
    • Nucleotide
    • Energy currency of the body
    • Provides energy for other chemical reactions such as anabolism or drive cell processes such as muscle contraction
    • All energy-requiring chemical reactions stop when there is inadequate ATP
  52. Basic Structure of the Cell (3)
    • Plasma membrane
    • Cytoplasm containing organelles
    • Nucleus
  53. what are the Functions of the Cell
    • Cell metabolism and energy use
    • Synthesis of molecules
    • Communication. Cells produce and receive electrical
    • and chemical signals
    • Reproduction and Inheritance. Each cell contains DNA. Some cells are
    • specialized to gametes for exchange during sexual intercourse
  54. Plasma Membrane
    • Separation of intracellular vs. extracellular materials
    • Production of charge difference (membrane potential) across the membrane by regulation of intracellular and extracellular ion concentrations
    • Outside of membrane positively charged compared to inside because of gathering ions along outside and inside
  55. Membrane Lipids
    • Phospholipids and cholesterol predominate
    • Phospholipids: bilayer. Polar heads facing water in the interior and exterior of the cell (hydrophilic); nonpolar tails facing each other on the interior of the membrane (hydrophobic)
    • Cholesterol: interspersed among phospholipids. Amount determines fluid nature of the membrane
    • Fluid nature provides/allows Distribution of molecules within the membrane
    • Phospholipids automatically reassembled if membrane is damaged
    • Membranes can fuse with each other
  56. Marker Molecules:
    Glycoproteins and Glycolipids
    • Allow cells to identify one another or other molecules
    • Immunity
    • Recognition of oocyte by sperm cell
    • Intercellular communication
  57. 2 types of Channel Proteins
    gated and non-gated
  58. non gated ion channel
    • always open
    • Responsible for the permeability of the plasma membrane to ions when the plasma membrane is at rest
  59. Gated ion channels
    can be opened or closed by certain stimuli
  60. Ligand gated ion channel:
    open in response to small molecules that bind to proteins or glycoproteins
  61. Voltage-gated ion channel:
    open when there is a change in electrical charge across the plasma membrane
  62. Carrier Proteins
    • Also called transporters
    • Integral proteins move ions from one side of membrane to the other
    • Have specific binding sites
    • Protein changes shape to transport ions or molecules
    • Resumes original shape after transport
  63. what are the three forms of carrier proteins?
    • Uniporters – moves one particle
    • Symporters – move two particles in the same direction at the same time
    • Antiporters – move two particles in opposite directions at the same time
  64. Receptor Proteins
    • Proteins or glycoproteins in membranes with an exposed receptor site
    • Can attach to specific chemical signal molecules and act as an intercellular communication system
    • Ligand can attach only to cells with that specific receptor
  65. Receptors Linked to Channel Proteins
    • Receptor molecules linked to channel proteins
    • Attachment of receptor-specific chemical signals (e.g., acetylcholine) to receptors causes change in shape of channel protein, Channel opens or closes
    • Changes permeability of cell to some substances
  66. Enzymes
    • some act to catalyze reactions at outer/inner surface of plasma membrane.
    • Surface cells of small intestine produce enzymes that digest dipeptides
  67. 5 types of Movement through the Plasma Membrane
    • Diffusion
    • Osmosis
    • Mediated Transport
    • Facilitated diffusion
    • Active transport
  68. Diffusion
    • Movement of solutes from an area of higher concentration to lower concentration in solution
    • Concentration gradient: difference between two points
  69. Osmosis
    • Diffusion of water (solvent) across a selectively permeable membrane.
    • Water moves from an area of low concentration of solute to an area of high concentration of solute
  70. Isotonic:
    solutions with the same concentrations of solute particles
  71. Solution with a greater concentration of solute is
  72. Solution with a lesser concentration of solute is
  73. shrinkage or swelling - isotonic?
    cell neither shrinks nor swells
  74. shrinkage or swelling - hypotonic
    cell swells (lysis)
  75. shrinkage or swelling - hypertonic
    cell shrinks (crenation)
  76. Mediated Transport
    • Involve carrier proteins or channels in
    • the cell membrane
    • Specificity for a single type of molecule
    • Competition among molecules of similar shape
    • Saturation: rate of transport limited to number of available carrier proteins
  77. Mediated Transport – Facilitated Diffusion
    • Facilitated diffusion: carrier- or channel-mediated. Passive.
    • Move large, water soluble molecules or electrically charged molecules across the plasma membrane.
    • Amino acids and glucose in, manufactured proteins out.
  78. Mediated Transport – Active Transport
    • ATP-Powered Transport
    • Requires ATP. The use of energy allows the cell to accumulate substances
    • Rate of transport depends on concentration of substrate and on concentration of ATP
    • Example: Na+/K+ exchange pump that create electrical potentials across membranes
  79. Endocytosis
    • Internalization of substances by formation of a vesicle
    • Active transport
    • Types:
    • Phagocytosis (shown): “cellular eating”
    • Pinocytosis: “cellular drinking”
    • Receptor-mediated endocytosis
  80. Exocytosis
    • Accumulated vesicle secretions expelled from cell
    • Active transport
    • Examples
    • Secretion of digestive enzymes by
    • pancreas
    • Secretion of mucous by salivary
    • glands
    • Secretion of milk by mammary
    • glands
Card Set:
A&P1 test 2
2012-02-09 03:39:10

test 2 for anatomy 1
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