Genomic Biology

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  1. Central Dogma
    Francis Crick (1956); the flow of information from DNA to RNA to protein
  2. Transcription
    (Gene Expression) Synthesis of an RNA molecule using a DNA template
  3. Translation
    (protein synthesis) conversion of the mRNA into amino acid sequence of a polypeptide.
  4. How many DNA strands is transcribed in transcription?
  5. What enzyme is used in transcription?
    RNA polymerase
  6. 4 Major types of RNA molecules:
    • 1. mRNA: Messenger RNA
    • 2. tRNA: Transfer RNA
    • 3. rRNA: Ribosomal RNA
    • 4. snRNA: Small nuclear RNA
  7. mRNA
    Encodes the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide; Transcripts of protein-coding genes
  8. tRNA
    Brings amino acids to ribosomes during translation; Facilitates attachment of amino acids by ribosomes
  9. rRNA
    Combines with proteins to form a ribosome; Structural component of ribosomes
  10. What is the catalyst for translation?
  11. snRNA
    Combines with proteins to form complexes used in eukaryotic RNA processing; Maturation of transcripts
  12. How is transcription regulated?
    By gene regulatory elements associated with each gene.
  13. The Transcription Process
    DNA unwinds in the region next to the gene (due to RNA polymerase in bacteria and other proteins in eukaryotes).
  14. In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, what enzyme catalyzes trancription?
    RNA polymerase
  15. In what direction is RNA transcribed?
    5' -to- 3'
  16. How is the template DNA strand read?
    3' -to- 5'
  17. Nontemplate strand has same polarity as ____.
    Template DNA's complementary DNA = Nontemplate strand; RNA
  18. In what 3 ways is RNA polymerization different from DNA synthesis?
    • 1. The precursors are NTPs (Nucleoside triphosphate) ; (not dNTPs =deoxyribonuclotide)
    • 2. No primer is needed to initate synthesis
    • 3. Uracil is inserted instead of thymine
  19. 3 Steps of transcription for both bacteria & eukaryotes
    • 1. Initiation
    • 2. Elongation (highly conserved)
    • 3. Termination
Card Set
Genomic Biology
Genomic Biology: Gene Expression: Transcription
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