Round bacteria that has arrangement in either clusters or chains
What are the two arrangements that the coccus bacteria an come in?
Clusters or chains
Bacillus bacteria shape?
Spirillum bacteria shape?
What is the Glycocalyx?
The outer wrapping of the bacteria, The outermost part of the cell envelope.
What are fimbriae/pili?
Hair like particles coming off the surface of the bacteria.
Pili are composed of a protein called...
Fimbraie and pili are both...
What is the sex pilus?
A hollow tube in which genetic info (DNA) can be transferred from one organism to another through a process called bacterial
What are the three major components of the cell envelope?
Glycocalyx, Cell Wall and Cell Membrane
What is the cell envelope?
Outer wrapping of the bacteria, the "coat"
What are the two kinds of glycocalyx?
Slime layers and capsules.
Which glycocalyx is virulent? Slime layer or capsule?
Both of them
How is a slime layer virulent?
inhibits the loss of nutrients, and aid in attachment with its stickiness.
How is a capsule virulent?
inhibits phagocytosis by white blood cells (anti-phagocytic)
What are the main differences bewtween a slime layer and a capsule?
the gelatinous and thickness, or how tight the protein mix is bound to the bacteria's cell wall.
Do all bacteria have glycocalyx?
What do slime layers and capsules have in common?
Same composition = consists of polysaccharide protein
What is the cell wall?
the exoskeleton of the cell
What gives bacteria their shape?
The cell wall
Why is the cell wall important for gram staining?
because different cell wall make ups have different staining retentions. Gives off different gram stain differential stain.
What is the bacterial exception to gram staining?
Why is Tuberculosis the bacterial exception to gram staining?
Its capsule is made of lipids, its nearly impossible to get dye to physically hold within the membrane.
What protects the cell from osmotic lysis?
How does the cell wall protects the cell from osmotic lysis?
confining the cell membrane
Thickness of the cell wall depends on what?
The cell type
Whether a cell wall is gram positive or negative, what is one trait both walls share?
It's walls contain heteropolymer peptidoglycan
What does the cell membrane do?
protects the cytoplasm
What is peptidoglycan?
glycan strands composed of linked NAM and NAG, With peptide bridges linking the NAMs.
What are the 5 major components of the cytoplasm?
Cell pool, nucleoids(chromatin body)Chromosome, plasmids, ribosomes, inclusion bodies/storage granuless
Do all bacteria have endospores?
What are the glycan chains in the cell wall?
long polysaccharide chains of two repeating disaccharides
NAG stands for..
NAM stands for..
What are the glycan chains in the cell wall cross linked by?
short tetrapeptide between M subunits
What increases the rigdity of the cell wall?
What kind of cell wall has multiple layers of peptidoglycan?
Gram positive Cell Wall
How many layers of peptidoglycan is in a gram positive cell wall?
about 40 layers
What makes up 10% of a gram positive cell wall?
What are the two acids that make up acidic polysaccharides?
Teichoic acid and Lipoteichoic
What are the functions of the teichoic and lipoteichoic acids?
assist in the transport of ions and reinforce cross linking between glycan chains.
NAMs and NAGs are both ...
Which cell wall is more rigid? Gram positive or gram negative?
Which cell wall is more complex in nature?
How many layers is in a gram negative cell wall?
What are the three main layers of the gram negative cell wall?
Outer membrane, periplasmic space (inner membrane), peptidoglycan.
In the gram negative cell wall, what is external to the peptidoglycan?
the outer membrane
In the gram negative cell wall, how is the outer membrane semi-permeable?
Because it allows the transfer of material across the inner memberane
In the gram negative cell wall, what is the outer membrane made of?
typical phospholipid bilayer
What are the three specialized proteins contained within the outer membrane of the gram negative cell wal?
lipopolysaccharides, lipoproteins, porin proteins
Do lipoplysaccharides have hydrophobic or hydrophilic tendencies?
What are porin proteins?
protein channels used to transport thing across the lipid bilayers.
What bands the whole bilayer together in the gram negative cell walls?
What is the periplasmic space?
the narrow gap between in the inner and outer membrane
What takes place in the periplasmic space?
all synthesis and metabolic reactions
What contains degragative or hydrolytic enzymes?
the periplasmic space
How many layers of peptidoglycan are found in the periplasmic space?
How many layers of peptidoglycan are there in the gram negative cell wall?
What happens when glucose enters the inner membrane?
Hydrolytic enzymes break it down into 6 single carbons for energy in differnet metabolic reactions.
gram positive and gram negative walls have this in common...
What is the cell membrane?
very thin flexible structure lying inside the cell wall, and molded completely around the cytoplasm
What is the cell membrane made of?
phospholipid bilayer containing specialized proteins on exterior of phospholipid bilayer, cant be in the hydrophobic tails.
WHat are the two kinds of specialized proteins found with the phospholipid bilayer of the cell membrane?
Integral and peripheral
What is the difference between intergral and peripheral proteins?
Intergal proteins have hydrophobic and hydrophilic tendencies because it is physically lodged into the the membrane and exposed on the exterior too. Periphreal proteins are strictly hydrophilic and are only fount on the exterior of the cell membrane, not in it.
The cell membrane is a ________ permeable barrier
What does the cell membrane retain?
What is the site of metabolic activities attributable to organelles in eukaryote?
How many layers of peptidoglycan are in a Gram + wall?
How many layers of peptidoglycan are in a gram negative wall?
What are the 3 kinds of ocular lenses?
10x, 43x and 97x
What is the total magnification?
The magnifcation of the eye piece (usually 10x) multiplied by whatever the objective lense magnification is.
What are the three objective lenses used in lab?
Low, High Dry and Oil
What is the magnification of the low objective lens?
what is the magnification of the high dry objective lens?
What is the magnification of the oil objective lens?
what is the resolving power?
the resolution (how small details are seperated and displayed)
What is the working distance?
The distance between the objective lens and the slide
What objective lens should have the smallest working distance?
What is the Iris diaphragm?
The lever in front of the microscope that open and closes the field of view.
What are the focusing knobs?
The coarse and fine knobs on the side of the microscope
What is the condenser on the microscope?
Controls the light source
What is the stage?
The platform on which the slides are set for viewing
what is the field of view?
The view that is seen through the ocular lens.
How do you prepare a slide from a solid medium? (8 steps)
Make a ring on the slide with a wax pencil
place 1 loopful of tap water in the ring
Sterilize the loop in the flame
With the loop, select an isolated colony from the agar plate and transfer it and mix it into the tap water on the slide.
Allow film to dry
Fix films by passing the slide 3 times through the flame
Stain the slide using the gram;s staining procedure
Examine the slide under oil immersion.
What are the steps for the staining procedure for Gram stain? (10 steps)
Flood slide with Crystal violet for 2 minutes
wash off and drain stain with water
apply gram's iodine for 2 minutes
wash off and drain with water
flood slide with 95% ethyl alcohol for about 15 seconds until decolorized