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are mostly found in animal products, such as butter, meat, and cheese (as well as tropical oils)
saturated fatty acids
_______________ of vegetables oils result in the formation of trans-fatty acids
plant products such as vegetable oils, nuts, and seeds are the main source of __________________
unsaturated fatty acids
____________ are the main constituits of dietary fats
long chain triglycerides
______________ are present in shortening, hard margerine, and baked goods such as crackers, cookies, fried items
trans fatty acids
linoleic and ________ are essential fatty acids
__________ can be found in safflower, corn, soybean, cottonseed, seasame, and sunflower oils, (omega 6)
canola oil and olive oil are good sources of ___________
monounsaturated fatty acids
triglycerides consist of fatty acids and _______
____________ is a fat soluble component synthesized by the liver and also found in animal sources (milk, eggs, meat)
______ is a macronutrient most often associated with development of obesity and cardiovascular disease
_______ transport lipids and cholesterol in the blood
cholesterol is mainly stored in the ______
_________ are chronic disease conditions associated with elevated blood lipid and lipoprotein concentraitons (too much fat in the blood)
long-term consequences of a diet high in fat, saturated, trans, and cholesterol include the development of ___________ plaques.
atheroma plaques do what to the blood flow and lead to the development of coronary heart disease
abnormal condition of the heart and blood vessels
abnormal condition of the heart and vascular system (broad term)
accumulation of cholesterol and lipid deposits on the arterial walls
inability of heart to pump blood to the body
accumulation of cholesterol and lipid, narrowing of the arteries of the heart
coronary heart disease
what are lipoproteins
mixture of cholesterol, triglycerides, etc.
how are lipoproteins classified
- heavier- more protein
- lighter- more fat
made in the intestine, made from fat from diet, exogenous lipid, and largest lipid = lightest lipid
bring fat and cholesterol to the liver,
Job: reverse transport, heaviest, mostly protein, smallest lipid
lipid made from extra calories, endogenous, made in liver, mainly triglyceride
mostly cholesterol, made in blood, it is 70% cholesterol in the blood
to much cholesterol in the blood
to much triglyceride in the blood
to much lipoprotein in the blood
blood pressure on the increase on at constant high
impairs blood flow in the brain
lack of blood flow
lack of blood flow to the brain
reduction of blood supply to heart muscles
intense pain and constricting pain with chest due to myocardial ischemia caused by inadquete oxygen supply to the heart muscle
inadequete blood flow causing necorosis in which part of the heart dies and then not able to pump enough blood to the body causing kidney to make blood volume rise -> to much sodium and water in body -> edema
congestive heart failure
heart attack or death of parts of heart that lead to not enough oxygen or blood supply
thread cathedar through artery to break blockage with inflated balloon.
vein in leg taken to bypass blockage in heart
high levels of lipid - causing fat nobules
risk factors of CHD
- age 55 +
- abdominal obesity
- BMI >25
- family history
- diet high in fats
elevated total blood cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and low HDL are main types of what?
type of hyperlipoproteinemias
caused by heredity
#1 most common and occuring heart disease
^ LDL ^ VLDL
common with diabetes mellitus and ^ triglycerides
total summery of labatory tests including: fasting blood total, LDL, HDL, triglycerides
blood lipid profile
Effect: heart disease, obesity, ^ blood lipids
Sources: butter, oils, fried foods
Effect: heart disease patients, increase LDL,
Sources: lauric, palmitic, and mystric fats (tropical oils)
Saturated fatty acids
Effect: raises LDL and lowers HDL
Sources: crisco, hard margerines
trans fatty acids
Effect: lowers LDL, keeps HDL constant
Sources: olive, peanut and canola oil
monounsaturated fatty acids
Effect: lowers LDL and HDL
Sources: corn, sunflower, safflower oil
polyunsaturated fally acids from FA
Effect: raise HDL, contains omega 3
Sources: precursor to prostigladins which dialate blood vessels while boosting immunity and decreases inflammation
polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish
Effect: lowers total cholesterol, binds bile
Sources: BEANS! oranges, apples, oats
Effect: decreases fat intake, does not effect blood cholesterol, displaces fat in diet
Sources: wheat, rye, brown rice, pasta
:Effect: lowers blood cholesterol
Sources: vegetable oils, seeds, nuts, soybeans
Total lifestyle change diet for treatment of hypercholestelmia in adults, diet should provide ____ % of energy intake as saturated and ___ % as trans fatty acids
7% and 1%
prevention and treatment of hypercholestermia in adults states that diet should provide <___mg cholesterol daily
Total lifestyle change diet should provide < ____ mg cholesterol daily
Target values of those at high risk of CHD
total Cholesterol: <____mg
optimal triglyceride concentration: <___mg
optimal blood pressure for healthy individuals
what blood pressure corresponds to high blood pressure (hypertension)
What is the Dash diet?
is a healthy diet low in sodium and rich fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy products.
recommendations of DASH diet?
- 8-10 servings of veggies and fruits
- 2-3 servings in low fat milk products
- rich in dietary fiber, potassium, calcium, magnesium and zinc
benefits of DASH diet?
reduce elevated blood pressure and elevated blood lipids
one teaspoon of table salt contains ___ mg sodium
main medications used for management of high blood pressure?
- Thiazide diuretics
- beta blockers
- ACE inhibitors
lipids originating in the diet are absorbed and transported in the lymph to the liver by?
AI for sodium? __g/per day
1.5 = 3.8g salt a day
UL for sodium? ____ mg
2300 = 5.9g of salt
Dietary guidelines for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease?
Total lifestyle change diet
recommendations of total lifestyle change diet?
Total fat ___%
SFA __% tras FA ___%
cholesterol <___ mg
- <7 <1
cardioprotective effects of EPA and DHA
- decrease triglyceride, LDL, blood platelet reactivity
- increase endothial relaxation and vasodialation
dietary recommendations for clients given coumiden to limit effects of nutrient-drug interaction? vitamin ___?
- vitamin K!
- constant vit. k intake such as spinach, cabbage, brocolli
adequete intakes of ______ recommended, deficiency thought to be associated with hyperhomocysteinemia, especially in elderly.
folate, pyridoxine, and vit. B12
what side or heart?
____ side pumps blood through the lungs to pick up oxygen
what side of heart?
______ side pumps blood with its oxygen load throughout body
chronic elevation in blood pressure is what disease?
causes of hypertension?
what kind of nutrients? lack? to much?
- excess sodium, lack calcium, magnesium, and potassium
- smoking, no exercise, diet, obesity
what reactive-protein measures the inflammatory response?
C reactive protein
increase what ?
limit to _____mg of sodium on this diet?
increase: calcium, potassium, fiber
decrease: sodium, saturated fat, alcohol
how many mg of sodium
DASH diet provides how many gm of potassium a day?
DASH diet provides how many cups of dairy per day?
what benefits do nuts have for the body especially those with hypertension
contain nitrous oxide- dialate blood vessels, lower bp, maintain wt.
where are chylomicrons formed?
in gut after meal
VLDL are formed where?
LDL are formed where? by what?
blood by VLDL
HDL are synthesized where? and released where?
liver to blood
CHD risk factors
Process of CHD
- 1. injury to the lining of the artery
- 2. body tries to repair damage
- 3.monocytes go to blood vessel walls maturing to macrophages
- 4.macropahges consume oxidized fatty acids causing buildup and scar tissue inhibiting blood flow, promoting clots
how can homocysetine be kept at low levels? what nutrients? (3)
folacin, b-6 and b-12
thickening of blood vessel walls caused by presence of plaque.... can cause CAD, CHF, MI, stroke
treatment of atherosclerosis?
type of diet
type of foods
- total lifestyle change diet
- food: fruits, vegetables, grains, fiber
what is ischemic heart disease
inadequete blood supply to the heart
treatment of ischemic heart disease
- decrease oral intake
- clear liquids
- smaller meals
what is heart failure?
impairment of the ventricles capacity to eject or fill with blood
main cause: structure or function damage
treatment of heart failure?
watch for what to nutrients?
treat underlying cause, control symptoms
SODIUM and WATER
Heart failure implications:
malnutrition/wasting, fatigue and anorexia is what disease?