CVD

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Author:
jcarlson
ID:
133901
Filename:
CVD
Updated:
2012-02-10 20:01:59
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nutrition
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nutrition
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  1. are mostly found in animal products, such as butter, meat, and cheese (as well as tropical oils)
    saturated fatty acids
  2. _______________ of vegetables oils result in the formation of trans-fatty acids
    hydrogentation
  3. plant products such as vegetable oils, nuts, and seeds are the main source of __________________
    unsaturated fatty acids
  4. ____________ are the main constituits of dietary fats
    long chain triglycerides
  5. ______________ are present in shortening, hard margerine, and baked goods such as crackers, cookies, fried items
    trans fatty acids
  6. linoleic and ________ are essential fatty acids
    linolenic
  7. __________ can be found in safflower, corn, soybean, cottonseed, seasame, and sunflower oils, (omega 6)
    linoleic
  8. canola oil and olive oil are good sources of ___________
    monounsaturated fatty acids
  9. triglycerides consist of fatty acids and _______
    glycerol
  10. ____________ is a fat soluble component synthesized by the liver and also found in animal sources (milk, eggs, meat)
    cholesterol
  11. ______ is a macronutrient most often associated with development of obesity and cardiovascular disease
    fat
  12. _______ transport lipids and cholesterol in the blood
    lipoproteins
  13. cholesterol is mainly stored in the ______
    liver
  14. _________ are chronic disease conditions associated with elevated blood lipid and lipoprotein concentraitons (too much fat in the blood)
    hyperlipidemias
  15. long-term consequences of a diet high in fat, saturated, trans, and cholesterol include the development of ___________ plaques.
    atheroma
  16. atheroma plaques do what to the blood flow and lead to the development of coronary heart disease
    impair
  17. cardiovascular disease
    abnormal condition of the heart and blood vessels
  18. abnormal condition of the heart and vascular system (broad term)
    heart disease
  19. atherosclerosis
    accumulation of cholesterol and lipid deposits on the arterial walls
  20. inability of heart to pump blood to the body
    heart failure
  21. accumulation of cholesterol and lipid, narrowing of the arteries of the heart
    coronary heart disease
  22. what are lipoproteins
    mixture of cholesterol, triglycerides, etc.
  23. how are lipoproteins classified
    • weight,
    • heavier- more protein
    • lighter- more fat
  24. made in the intestine, made from fat from diet, exogenous lipid, and largest lipid = lightest lipid
    chylomicrons
  25. bring fat and cholesterol to the liver,
    Job: reverse transport, heaviest, mostly protein, smallest lipid
    HDL
  26. lipid made from extra calories, endogenous, made in liver, mainly triglyceride
    VLDL
  27. mostly cholesterol, made in blood, it is 70% cholesterol in the blood
    LDL
  28. to much cholesterol in the blood
    hypercholesterolemia
  29. to much triglyceride in the blood
    hypertriglyceridemia
  30. to much lipoprotein in the blood
    hyperlipoproteinemias
  31. blood pressure on the increase on at constant high
    hypertension
  32. impairs blood flow in the brain
    stroke
  33. lack of blood flow
    ischemia
  34. lack of blood flow to the brain
    ischemic stroke
  35. reduction of blood supply to heart muscles
    myocardial ischemia
  36. intense pain and constricting pain with chest due to myocardial ischemia caused by inadquete oxygen supply to the heart muscle
    angina pectoris
  37. inadequete blood flow causing necorosis in which part of the heart dies and then not able to pump enough blood to the body causing kidney to make blood volume rise -> to much sodium and water in body -> edema
    congestive heart failure
  38. heart attack or death of parts of heart that lead to not enough oxygen or blood supply
    myocardial infarction
  39. thread cathedar through artery to break blockage with inflated balloon.
    angioplasty
  40. vein in leg taken to bypass blockage in heart
    CABG
  41. high levels of lipid - causing fat nobules
    xanthomata
  42. risk factors of CHD
    • age 55 +
    • male
    • sedendary
    • abdominal obesity
    • BMI >25
    • smoking
    • diabetes
    • family history
    • diet high in fats
  43. elevated total blood cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and low HDL are main types of what?
    hyperlipidemias
  44. type of hyperlipoproteinemias
    elevated chylomicrons
    caused by heredity
    type 1
  45. #1 most common and occuring heart disease
    ^ LDL ^ VLDL
    Type 2b
  46. common with diabetes mellitus and ^ triglycerides
    Type 4
  47. total summery of labatory tests including: fasting blood total, LDL, HDL, triglycerides
    blood lipid profile
  48. Dietary components:

    Effect: heart disease, obesity, ^ blood lipids

    Sources: butter, oils, fried foods
    Fat
  49. Dietary components:

    Effect: heart disease patients, increase LDL,

    Sources: lauric, palmitic, and mystric fats (tropical oils)
    Saturated fatty acids
  50. Dietary components:

    Effect: raises LDL and lowers HDL

    Sources: crisco, hard margerines
    trans fatty acids
  51. Dietary components:

    Effect: lowers LDL, keeps HDL constant

    Sources: olive, peanut and canola oil
    monounsaturated fatty acids
  52. Dietary components:

    Effect: lowers LDL and HDL

    Sources: corn, sunflower, safflower oil
    polyunsaturated fally acids from FA
  53. Dietary components:

    Effect: raise HDL, contains omega 3

    Sources: precursor to prostigladins which dialate blood vessels while boosting immunity and decreases inflammation
    polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish
  54. Dietary components:

    Effect: lowers total cholesterol, binds bile

    Sources: BEANS! oranges, apples, oats
    soluble fiber
  55. Dietary components:

    Effect: decreases fat intake, does not effect blood cholesterol, displaces fat in diet

    Sources: wheat, rye, brown rice, pasta
    insoluble fiber
  56. Dietary components

    :Effect: lowers blood cholesterol

    Sources: vegetable oils, seeds, nuts, soybeans
    plant sterols
  57. Total lifestyle change diet for treatment of hypercholestelmia in adults, diet should provide ____ % of energy intake as saturated and ___ % as trans fatty acids
    7% and 1%
  58. prevention and treatment of hypercholestermia in adults states that diet should provide <___mg cholesterol daily
    300
  59. Total lifestyle change diet should provide < ____ mg cholesterol daily
    200
  60. Target values of those at high risk of CHD

    total Cholesterol: <____mg
    HDL: >_____mg
    LDL: <_____mg
    • 200
    • 60
    • 100
  61. optimal triglyceride concentration: <___mg
    150
  62. optimal blood pressure for healthy individuals
    120/80
  63. what blood pressure corresponds to high blood pressure (hypertension)
    140/90
  64. What is the Dash diet?
    is a healthy diet low in sodium and rich fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy products.
  65. recommendations of DASH diet?
    • 8-10 servings of veggies and fruits
    • 2-3 servings in low fat milk products
    • rich in dietary fiber, potassium, calcium, magnesium and zinc
  66. benefits of DASH diet?
    reduce elevated blood pressure and elevated blood lipids
  67. one teaspoon of table salt contains ___ mg sodium
    2325
  68. main medications used for management of high blood pressure?
    • Thiazide diuretics
    • beta blockers
    • ACE inhibitors
  69. lipids originating in the diet are absorbed and transported in the lymph to the liver by?
    chylomicrons
  70. AI for sodium? __g/per day
    1.5 = 3.8g salt a day
  71. UL for sodium? ____ mg
    2300 = 5.9g of salt
  72. Dietary guidelines for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease?
    Total lifestyle change diet
  73. recommendations of total lifestyle change diet?

    Total fat ___%
    SFA __% tras FA ___%
    PUFA__%
    MUFA__%
    cholesterol <___ mg
    carbohydrates___-___%
    Protein ___%
    Energy _______
    alcohol _________
    • 25-35%
    • <7 <1
    • 10%
    • 20%
    • <200
    • 50-60%
    • 15%
    • control
    • moderation
  74. cardioprotective effects of EPA and DHA
    decrease ?
    increase?
    • decrease triglyceride, LDL, blood platelet reactivity
    • increase endothial relaxation and vasodialation
  75. dietary recommendations for clients given coumiden to limit effects of nutrient-drug interaction? vitamin ___?
    • vitamin K!
    • constant vit. k intake such as spinach, cabbage, brocolli
  76. adequete intakes of ______ recommended, deficiency thought to be associated with hyperhomocysteinemia, especially in elderly.
    folate, pyridoxine, and vit. B12
  77. what side or heart?

    ____ side pumps blood through the lungs to pick up oxygen
    right side
  78. what side of heart?

    ______ side pumps blood with its oxygen load throughout body
    left side
  79. chronic elevation in blood pressure is what disease?
    hypertension
  80. causes of hypertension?
    what kind of nutrients? lack? to much?
    lifestyle factors?
    • excess sodium, lack calcium, magnesium, and potassium
    • smoking, no exercise, diet, obesity
  81. what reactive-protein measures the inflammatory response?
    C reactive protein
  82. DASH diet
    increase what ?
    decrease what?
    limit to _____mg of sodium on this diet?
    increase: calcium, potassium, fiber

    decrease: sodium, saturated fat, alcohol

    2400
  83. how many mg of sodium

    pasta ___
    cereal____
    bread____
    milk____
    • 5
    • 100
    • 110
    • 120
  84. DASH diet provides how many gm of potassium a day?
    4-6
  85. DASH diet provides how many cups of dairy per day?
    3
  86. what benefits do nuts have for the body especially those with hypertension
    contain nitrous oxide- dialate blood vessels, lower bp, maintain wt.
  87. where are chylomicrons formed?
    in gut after meal
  88. VLDL are formed where?
    liver
  89. LDL are formed where? by what?
    blood by VLDL
  90. HDL are synthesized where? and released where?
    liver to blood
  91. CHD risk factors
    • genetics
    • smoking
    • lifestyle
    • diet
  92. Process of CHD
    (4 steps)
    1.
    2.
    3.
    4.
    • 1. injury to the lining of the artery
    • 2. body tries to repair damage
    • 3.monocytes go to blood vessel walls maturing to macrophages
    • 4.macropahges consume oxidized fatty acids causing buildup and scar tissue inhibiting blood flow, promoting clots
  93. how can homocysetine be kept at low levels? what nutrients? (3)
    folacin, b-6 and b-12
  94. thickening of blood vessel walls caused by presence of plaque.... can cause CAD, CHF, MI, stroke
    atherosclerosis
  95. treatment of atherosclerosis?
    type of diet
    type of foods
    • total lifestyle change diet
    • food: fruits, vegetables, grains, fiber
  96. what is ischemic heart disease
    inadequete blood supply to the heart
  97. treatment of ischemic heart disease
    • decrease oral intake
    • clear liquids
    • smaller meals
  98. what is heart failure?
    impairment of the ventricles capacity to eject or fill with blood

    main cause: structure or function damage
  99. treatment of heart failure?

    watch for what to nutrients?
    treat underlying cause, control symptoms

    SODIUM and WATER
  100. Heart failure implications:

    malnutrition/wasting, fatigue and anorexia is what disease?
    cardiac cachexia

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