302 1 Infancy

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  1. Development approaches 8
    • biological
    • behvior ecology
    • behavioral theory
    • social learning theory
    • cognitive-development theory
    • ecological theory
    • sociocultural theory
    • psychoanalytical perspective
  2. biological approaches
    • charles darwin
    • natural selection
  3. behavior ecology theory
    • species specific behaviors - evolved through natural selection
    • critical period - limited period of time during which learning occurs
  4. learning theories
    • classical conditioning
    • operant conditioning
    • social learning theory
  5. behavioral theory
    • classical conditioning
    • operant conditioning
    • reinforcement
  6. classical conditioning
    • developed by Pavlov
    • reflex response is associated with a new stimuus
  7. operant conditioing
    • developed by Skinner
    • the frequency of an operant (spontaneous behavior) is controlled by its consequences
    • reinforcements
  8. positive reinforcement
    increases the frequency of behavior when they are applied
  9. negative reinforcers
    • increases the frequency of behaviors when they are removed
    • strengthens a behavior because a negative condition is stopped or avoided as a consequence of the behavior
  10. social learning theory
    • entirely new behaviors could be acquired almost immediately through observational learning
    • infants come to control not only their behavior but also the behavior of other people around them
  11. social learning theory
    4 processes involved in modeling
    • attention
    • retention
    • motor reproduction
    • reinforcement/motivation
  12. cognitive development theory
    Piaget - humans gradually come to acquire knowledge, construct it and use it
  13. Piaget stressed that
    • children actively construct their own cognitive worlds
    • info is not just poured into their mids from the environment
  14. cognitive development theory
    the modification of schemes to make sense of new experiences
  15. scheme
    a pattern of action that organizes knowledge
  16. 3 processes used to adjust schemes
    • assimilation
    • accommodation
    • equilibration
  17. ecological persepctive
    • Brofenbrenner
    • systems embedded within systems
  18. microsystem
    immediate family and close contacts
  19. mesosystems
    interactions of various systems with the microsystem
  20. exosystem
    institutions that indirectly effect the development of the child
  21. sociocultural perspective
    • Vygotsky
    • focus on transmition of info and cognitive skills from generation to generation
    • learning consists of social engagement from a more skilled person to a lesser skilled individual
  22. zine of proximal development
    range of tasks that a chid can carry out with the help of a more skilled person
  23. scaffolding
    problem solving methods such as cues provided to the chold to increase independent functioning
  24. infantile amnesia
    • the inability to have memories of infant experiences
    • no memories before 2
    • a few btw 2-4
    • most after 5
  25. psychoanalytical perspective
    • Freud
    • included: unconscious mind, psychosexual stages and defense mechanisms
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302 1 Infancy
2012-02-09 03:32:30

HDF 302
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