A&P Ch2

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A&P Ch2
2012-02-09 14:11:25
AAOS Paramedic

Vital Vocabulary Cards for Jones and Barlett AAOS Paramedic: Anatomy and Physiology
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  1. Active Transport
    Movement of a chemical by the use of energy through a gradient, such as a cell membranem in concentration or electrical potential. This movement is opposite the normal movement by diffusion
  2. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
    The major source of energy for all chemical reactuins of the body
  3. Adipose Tissue
    A type of connective tissue that contains large amounts of fat
  4. Antecubital fossa
    The anterior surface at the bend of the elbow
  5. Anterior triangle
    Area of the neck that is bordered by the sternocleidomastiod muscle, the anterior midline of the neck and the inferior border of the mandible
  6. Appendicular region
    A division of the skeletal system, which includes the extemities and their attachments to the body
  7. Axial region
    A division of the skeletal system, which includes the head, neck, and trunk
  8. Axilla
    The armpit
  9. Axon
    A component of the nerve cell that conducts impulses away from the nerve cell body
  10. Basement Membrane
    The noncellular layer in an epithelial cell that secures the overlying epithelial tissues
  11. Body cavities
    Hollow areas within the body that contain organs and organ systems
  12. Cardiac muscle
    Striated involuntary muscle that has the capacity to generate and conduct electrical impulses
  13. Carotid triangle
    Area of the anterior triangle of the neck that contains the catotid artey and internal jugular vein
  14. Cartilage
    Plates of shiny connective tissue that are lubricated by synovial fluid, which provides a slippery surface over which the bones may move freeely
  15. Cell membrane
    A srtucture that surrounds protoplasm, consisting of the fatty substances that separate one cell from its neighbors; also called the plasma membrane
  16. Cells
    Made up of protoplasm or cytoplasm, specialized for particular functions, these are the building blocks of life
  17. Centrioles
    Orgnaelles that are essential in cell division
  18. Chromosomes
    Structures containing DNA within the cell's nucleus. Human cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes
  19. Cilla
    Hair-like microtubule projections on the surface of a cell that can move materials over the cell surface
  20. Coelom
    A fluid-filled body cavity that contains organs and connective tissue
  21. Columnar
    Rows of tall thin epithelial cells
  22. Concentration gradiant
    The difference in concentrations of a substance on either side of a selectively permeable membrane
  23. Cranial Cavity
    The hollow portion of the skull
  24. Crenation
    Shrinkage of a cell that results when too much water leaves the cell through osmosis
  25. Cuboidal
    Rows of square-shaped epithelial cells
  26. Cytoplasm
    A viscous liquid matrix that supports all internal cellular structures and provides a meduim for intracellular transport; also called protoplasm
  27. Dendrite
    A component of the nerve cell that receives electrical impulses and conducts them toward the cell body
  28. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
    The genetic material found on the chromosomes in the cell's nucleus
  29. Diaphoresis
  30. Diffusion
    Movement of particles or solutes from an area of high concentration to low conventration
  31. Diploid
    The two sets of 23 chromosomes, one set donated by each parent, found in all cells, except sperm and ova cells, which only contain a total of 23 chromosomes
  32. Dysrhythmias
    Potentially life-threatening heart rhythm disturbances
  33. Electrolytes
    Salt or acid substances that become ionic conductors when dissolved ina solvent (ie, water). Chemicals disolved in the the blood
  34. Electrons
    Negativvely charged particles that are part of the make-up of an atom
  35. Element
    the smallest unit of a single chemical substance, such as hydrogen, oxygen, or potassium
  36. Endocytosis
    The uptake of material through the cell membrane bu a membrane-bound droplet or vesicle formes within the cell's protoplasm
  37. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    A series of membranes in which proteins and fats are manufactured
  38. Exocytosis
    The release of secretions from cells that have been accumulated in vesiciles
  39. Extracellular
    Substances located outside of the cell membrane
  40. Extracellular fluid (ECF)
    Fluid outside of the cell, in which most of the body's supply of soduim is contained
  41. Facilitated diffusion
    Process whereby a carrier molecule moves substances in or out of cells from areas of higher to lower concentration
  42. Filtration
    A process of the movement of water out of plasma across the capillary membrane into the interstitial space
  43. Flagellum
    A tail-like microtubule structure capable of motion to propel the cell.
  44. Fontanels
    Areas in the infant's skull where the sutures between the skull bones have not yet closed
  45. Girdles
    Bony structures that attach the limbs to the body
  46. Golgi complex
    A set of membranes in the protoplasm involved in the formation of sugars and complex proteins
  47. Hapliod
    The 23 chromosomes found in a sperm or ova cell
  48. Hemothorax
    An abnormal accumulation of bloody fluid within the pleural cavity following trauma
  49. Homeostasis
    The maintenance of a relatively stable internal physiologic environment
  50. Hydrostatic pressure
    Blood pressure in the vessel walls created by the heart beating pushes the water out of the capilary into the interstitial space
  51. Hyperkalemia
    Abnormal elevation of serum potassuim levels
  52. Hypernatremia
    An abnormally high sodium level in the blood
  53. Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic coma (HHNC)
    A diabetic emergency that occurs from a relative insulin deficiency, resulting in marked hyperglycemia but the absence of ketones and acidosis
  54. Hypertonic
    A solution with an osmotic pressure greater than that of body fluid (ie, a cell placed in the solution will shrink).
  55. Hypoxia
    A state of decreased oxygenation
  56. Integument
    Skin, the covering of the body surface
  57. Intracellular
    Substances, such as the organelles that are found inside the cell membrane
  58. Intracellular fluid (ICF)
    Fluid within cells in which most if the body's supply of potassuim is contained
  59. Involuntary
    Not normally under conscious control, as in muscle
  60. Ion channel
    Protein-lined pores or transport channels, specifically sized for each substance, which allow electrolyte movements amoung the cells
  61. Isotonic
    A solution that has the same osmotic pressure as the cells and body fluids, (ie, a cell placed in the solution will neither shrink not swell).
  62. Joint
    The point where two or more bones come together allowing movement to occur
  63. Krebs cycle
    A sequence of reactions in an organism in which oxidation of acids provides energy for storage in phosphate bonds (as in ATP); also called the tricarbocxlic acid cycle
  64. Ligaments
    Tough white bands of tissue that bind joints together, connecting bones to cartilage
  65. Lipid bilayer
    the double later of fatty components that creat the outside of the cell membrane
  66. Lysis
    The process of disintergration or or breakdown of cells that occurs when excess water enters the cell through osmosis
  67. Lysosomes
    Membrane-bound vesicles that contain a variety of enzymes functioning as a cell's digestive system
  68. Mediastinum
    The space between the lungs, in the center of the chest, that contains the heart, trachea, mainstem bronchi, part of the esophagus, and large blood vessels
  69. Meiosis
    A specialized form of cell division that results in the production of mature sperm and ova
  70. Microtubules
    Hollow filamentous structures that make up various components of the cell
  71. Mitochondria
    Small rod-like organelles that function as the merabolic center of the cell and produce ATP
  72. Mitosis
    The division of one cell into two geneically identical and equal daughter cells
  73. Myoclonus
    Abnormal and persistent muscle spasms
  74. Neuroglia
    Collectively, the name for the connective and supporting tissuesj of the nervous tissue
  75. Neuron
    The main functional unit of the nervous system
  76. Neutrons
    Uncharged particles that are part of the make up of an atom
  77. Nonstriated
    Smooth muscle tissue
  78. Nuclear Envelope
    The membrane that surrounds the nucleus of the cell
  79. Nucleoli
    Rounded, dense structures in the protoplasm that contain RNA and synthesize proteins
  80. Nucleus
    The nerve center, or central body, of the cell, embedded within the protoplasm
  81. Oncotic force
    An opposing pressure to hydostatic pressure, it pulls water back into the capillary from the interstitial space in an effort to create balance
  82. Organ
    Different types of tissues working together to perform a particular function
  83. Organells
    The internal structures within the cell
  84. Organism
    Any living thing considered as a whole, made up of various organ systems
  85. Organ system
    A group of organs that have a common purpose, such as the skeleton and muscles, circulatory, and respiratory systems, amoung others
  86. Osmosis
    The movement of a solvent, such as water, from an area of low solute concentration to one of high concentration through a selectively permeable membrane to equalize concentrations of a solute on both sides of the membrane
  87. Osmotic Pressure
    The measure of the tendancy of water to move by osmosis across a membrane
  88. Oxidative metabolism
    Process in which oxygen is used chemically to produce energy from carbohydrates
  89. Parietal portion
    The portion of the serous membrane that lines the walls of the trunk cavitites
  90. Pericardial cavity
    The region around the heart
  91. Pericardial effusion
    An abnormal accumulation of fluid within the pericardial sac
  92. Pericardial Sac
    The fluid-filled potential space between the layers of the pericardium
  93. Pericardial Tamponade
    A condition that occurs as fluid accumulates around the heart, which restricts the heart's stroke volume
  94. Pericarduim
    The serous membranes that surround the heart
  95. Periosteum
    The membrane that covers the bones of the skull and all other bones, except at articular surfaces
  96. Peripheral nerves
    The nerves that extend from the brain and spinal cord to various parts of the body by exiting between the vertebrae of the spine
  97. Peritionitis
    An inflammation of the peritoneum
  98. Phagocytosis
    Endocytosis involving solid particles
  99. Pinocytosis
    Endocytosis involving liquid
  100. Pleura
    Serous membranes surrounding the lungs
  101. Pleural effusion
    An abnormal accumulation of fluid within the pleural cavity
  102. Pneumothorax
    An abnormal accumulation of air within the plaural cavity
  103. Popliteal fossa
    The space behind the knee
  104. Posterior triangle
    Area of the neck containing the lymph nodes, brachial plexus, spinal accessory nerve, and a portion of the subclavian artery
  105. Protons
    Positively charged particles that are part of the make-up of an atom
  106. Protoplasm
    A viscous liquid matrix that supports all internal cellular structues and provides a meduim for intracellular transport; also called cytoplasm
  107. Pseudostratified epithelium
    A single later of epithelail cells of varying heights, all of which attach to the basement membrane, but all do not reach the free surface
  108. Remodeling
    Replacing dead cells with new cells on an ongoing basis
  109. Retroperitoneal organs
    The organs (kidneys, pancreas, and duodenum) and major blood vessels located in the retroperitoneal space
  110. Retroperitoneal space
    Area locared posterior to the parieral peritoneum that contain the kidnets, pancreas, duodenum, and major blood vessels
  111. Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
    Nucleic acids that contain ribose and uracil as structural components and are associated with controlling cellular activities
  112. Ribosomes
    Organelles that contain RNA and protein
  113. Selective permeability
    Allowing some but not all substances to pass through a membrane to maintain homeostasis
  114. Serous membrane
    A specialized form of thin connective tissue that is broken into two layers: the parietal portion and the visceral portion
  115. Serum Osmolality
    The number of osmotically active particles in serum
  116. Simple epithelium
    A single later of cells, all of which are in contact with the besment membrane of the pithelial cell
  117. Skeletal Muscle
    Striated vountary muscle used to move the body parts
  118. Skeletal System
    The 206 bones that form the foundation of and frame of the body
  119. Skull
    the protective vault that houses the brain and is composed of the cranium and facial bones
  120. Smooth Muscle
    Nonstriated involuntart muscle found in vessle walls, glands, and the GI tract
  121. Soduim-potassium exchange pump
    A mechanism that uses active transport to move sodium out of the cells and potassium into the cells
  122. Solutes
    Particles, such as salts, that are dissolved in a solvent
  123. Spinal cavity
    The spinal column or vertbral canal, housing the spinal cord
  124. Spindle fibers
    Microtubules radiating from the centrioles
  125. Squamous
    Flat sheets of epithelial cells
  126. Stratified epithelium
    More than one layer of cells, only one of which is in contact with the basement membrane of the epithelial cell
  127. Striated
    Muscle tissue that has microscopic bands and may be either voluntary, such as leg muscles, or involuntary, such as cardiac muscle
  128. Synovial fluid
    Lubricating fluid found in a joint
  129. Tachycardia
    A rapid respiratory rate
  130. Tendons
    Tough cords or bands of dense white fibrous connective tissue that are continuous with the periosteum of the bone
  131. Tissue
    Groups of similar cells that work together
  132. Transitional epithelium
    Laters of straitified cells that change shape from cuboidal to squamous when the organ is stretched
  133. Umbilicus
    The navel
  134. Vertevral Column
    The backbone, composed of the vertebrae, through which the spinal cord travels
  135. Visceral portion
    The portion of a serous membrane that covers the outside of an internal organ
  136. Voluntary
    Consciously controlled, as in skeletal muscle tissue