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1. Doctor of Chiropractic degree
2. Specializes in manipulative treatment of disorders originating from the misalignment of the spine.
1. Physician (MD or DO)
2. Specializes in diagnosing & treating diseases and disorders involving the bones, joints, and muscles.
3. Also known as orthopedist.
1. Holds a Doctor of Osteopathy (DO) degree
2. Uses traditional forms of medical treatment IN ADDITION to
3. specializing in treating health problems by spinal manipulation.
4. Medical practice is known as osteopathy.
1. Holds Doctor of Podiatry (DP) or Doctor of Podiatric Medicine (DPM)
2. Specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the foot.
1. Loss or absence of mobility in a joint due to disease, injury, or surgical procedure.
Note: Ankyl/o means crooked, bent, or stiff.
Stiffness of a joint, epsecialy in the elderly,.
Inflammation of a bursa.
Abnormal softening of cartilage.
Slow-growing, benign tumor derived from cartilage cells.
Inflammation of the cartilage that connects a rib to the sternum.
1. Abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe.
2. Also known as bunion.
3. Hallux = great toe; valgus = bent)
1. Blood within a joint.
2. Frequently due to joint injury, but can also occur spontaneously in patients taking blood-thinners or those who have a clotting disorder.
Inflammation of the synovial membrane that results in swelling and pain in the affected joint.
Can be caused by arthritis, infection, or irritation produced by damaged cartilage.
Total displacement of a bone from its joint.
Partial, incomplete displacement of a bone from its joint.
Degenerative disorder that can cause loss of normal spinal structure & function.
1. Also known as wear-and-tear arthritis.
2. Most commonly associated with aging.
1. Also known as gout.
2. A type of arthritis characterized by deposits of uric acid in the joints (of hands & feet.) (Uric acid is byproduct normally exreted by the kidneys.)
3. Gout develops when excess uric acid, present in the blood stream, forms crystals in the joints of hands & feet.
1. Commonly known by abbreviation: RA
2. Chronic autoimmune disorder in which synovial membranes become inflamed and thickened so joints become increasingly swollen, painful, and immobile.
3. Some other organs of the body may also be attaacked uch as chest pain on taking a breath, dry eyes and mouth, numbness, tingling, and/or burning of hands & feet, and nodules under the skin.
4. More common in middle age and among women.
5. May be linked to infection, genes, or hormones.
6. Test for it with Rheumatoid factor test or Anti-CCP antibody test.
1. Form of rheumatoid arthritis.
2. Primarily causes inflammation of the joints between the vertebrae. (Not in book, but may also occur between vertebrae and pelvis.)
3. Results in progressive stiffening of a back.
Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
- 1. Autoimmune disorder affeting children age 16 or younger with symptoms including:
- .....a. stiffness
- .....b. pain
- .....c. joint swelling
- .....d. skin rash
- .....e. fever
- .....f. slowed growth
- .....g. fatigue
1. Also known as slipped or ruptured disk.
2. Breaking part of an intervertral disk resulting in pressure on spinal nerve roots.
Pain in the lumbar region of the spine, also known as low back pain.
Forward slipping movement of the body of one lower lumbar vertebrae on the vertebra or sacrum below it.
1. Congenital defect that occurs in early pregnancy when spinal canal fails to close completely around spinal cord.
2. Some cases due to lack of the nutrient folic acid during the early stages of pregnancy,
1. Abnormal increase in outward curvature of the thoracic spine as viewed from the side.
2. Commonly known as humpback or dowager's hump
3. Frequently associated with aging. (due to osteoporosis and compression fractures.)
1. Abnormal increase in the forward curvature of the lumbar spine.
2. Commonly known as swayback.
1. Abnormal lateral (sideways) curvature of the spine.
2. Makes 'S-shape' when seen from the back - think 'S' and 'Scoliosis.'
Malformation of skull due to premature closure of the cranial sutures.
1. Bone disorder
of unknown cause
that destroys normal bone structure
it with fibrous (scar-like) tissue
- 2. Results in:
- .....a. Uneven growth
- .....b. Brittleness
- .....c. Deformity of affected bones
1. Pain in a bone.
2. Also known as osteodynia
Inflammation of a bone.
1. Abnormal softening
of bones in ADULTS
- 2. Usually caused by deficiency of:
- .....a. Vitamin D
- .....b. Calcium and/or
- .....c. Phosphate.
3. Also known as adult rickets.
1. Inflammation of bone marrow and adjacent bone.
2. Caused by bacterial infection which often originates in another part of the body and spreads to th bone via the blood.
Death of bone tissue due to insufficient blood supply.
1. Bone disease of unknown cause.
2. Characterized by excessive breakdown of bone tissue, followed by abnormal bone formation.
3. The new bone is structurally enlarged, but weakened and filled with new blood vessels.
1. Inflammation of the periosteum.
2. Often associated with shin splints.
1. Vitamin D deficiency disease occurring in children and causing defective bone growth.
2. Sometimes due to insufficient exposure to sunlight.
1. Was known as dwarfism; now affected individuals are known as 'little people.'
2. Condition resulting from the failure of the bones of the limbs to grow to an appropriate length.
3. Average adult height is no more than 4'10".
1. Any congenital deformity of the foot involving the talus (ankle bones.)
2. Also known as clubfoot.
PRIMARY bone cancer
Relatively rare malignant tumor that originates in a bone. (Malignant means 'becoming progressively worse and life-threatening.)
Example: Ewing's sarcoma - tumor occurs in the bones of the upper arms, legs, pelvis, or rib. Peak incidence is between 10 and 20 years of age.
SECONDARY bone cancer
Term for tumor that has spread (metastisized) to bone from some other organs such as breast or lung.
1. Type of cancer that occurs in blood-making cells of the red bone marrow.
2. Can cause pathologic fractures.
3. Is often fatal.
1. Benign bony projection covered with cartilage.
2. This type of tumor is also known as an exostosis.
Marked loss of bone density AND increase in bone porosity frequently associated with aging.
Condition of someone who does not yet have osteoporosis, but who is at risk for developing it.
1. Occurs when bone is pressed together (compressed) on itself.
2.These fractures are sometimes caused by the spontaneous collapse of weakened vertebrae or can be due to an injury.
3. Results in pain, loss of height, and developmet of the spinal curvature known as dowager's hump.
1. Occurs at the lower end of the radius when a person tries to stop a fall by landing on his or her hands.
2. Impact of this fall causes a bone, weakened by osteoporosis to break.
3. Named for Irish surgeon, Abraham Colles.
4. Also known as fracrued wrist.
Osteoporotic hip fracture
1, Usually caused by weakening of the bones due to osteoporosis.
2. Can occur spontaneously or as a result of a fall
3. Complications from these fractures can result in the loss of function, mobility, independence, and even death.
4. Also known as broken hip.
1. Also called 'simple fracture' or 'complete fracture.'
2. Bone is broken but there is NO open wound in the skin.
1. Also called a 'compound fracture.'
2. Bone is broken AND there IS an open wound in the skin.
Bone is splintered or crushed.
1. Bone is bent and only partially broken.
2. Occurs primarily in children.
Fracture occurs at an angle across the bone.
1. Occurs when weakened bone breaks under normal strain.
2. Due to bones being weakened by osteoporosis or a disease process such as cancer.
1. An overuse injury; this is a small crack in a bone that often develops from chronic excssive impact.
1. Fracture in which the bone has been twisted apart.
2. Occurs as a result of a severe twisting motion such as in a sports injury (In children it is most commonly due to abuse.)
A fracture that occurs straight across the bone.
Note: compare to oblique or spiral fractures.
May form when a bone is fractured and fat cells from the yellow bone marrow are released into the blood.
Note: An embolis is any foreign matter circulating in the blood that can become lodged and block a blood vessel.
1. Also known as crepitus.
2. Grating sound heard when the ends of a broken bone move together.
3. Also refers to clicking soud heard in the movements of some joints.
4. Also describes the crackling sound heard in lungs affected with pneumonia.
Bulging deposit formed around the area of a fracture.
2. Tissue eventually becomes bone.
3. Callus is also thickening of the skin caused by repeated rubbing.