Chapter 6 vocab (interest groups)

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  1. faction
    founders used to refer to political parties and interest groups
  2. pluralism
    theory of gov that open, multiple, and competing groups can check the asserted power by any one group
  3. The Federalist no. 10: source of faction
    • in the nature of man to pursue own interests
    • various and unequal distribution of property
  4. interest group
    • a collection of ppl who share a common interest or attitude and seek to influence government for specific ends.
    • usually work within the framwork of gov and try to achieve their goals thru tactics such as lobbying
    • can be corporations
  5. movement (social, etc)
    • a large body of ppl interested in a common issue, idea, or concern that is of continuing signif and who are willing to take action.
    • seek to change attitudes or institutions, not just policies
    • interest groups sometimes start as movements
  6. types of interest groups
    • economic (both business and labor)
    • ideological or single-issue (less likely to compromise)
    • public interest
    • foreign policy
    • government itself
  7. trade associations
    businesses with similar interests
  8. open shop
    a company with labor agreement under which union membership can NOT be required as a condition of employment
  9. closed shop
    a company in which a labor agreement under which a labor union membership CAN be a condition of employment
  10. free rider
    an indiv who does not join a group representing his/her interests yet receives the benefit of the group's influence
  11. professional associations
    groups of indivs who share a common profession and are often organized for common political purposes related to their profession
  12. nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)
    nonprofit association or group operating outside gov that advocates and pursues policy objectives
  13. collective action
    how groups form and organize to pursue their goals or objectives, including how to get indivs and groups to participate and cooperate (applies to the various social sciences)
  14. public choice
    • collective action
    • more specific to how gov officials, politicians, and voters respond to + and - incentives
  15. lobbying
    • engaging in activies aimed at influencing public officials, esp legislators, and the policies they enact
    • direct contact with policymakers for the purpose of persuasion through the provision of information, political benefits, etc
  16. Federal Register
    • offical doc, published every weekday, that lists the new and proposed reguations of executive departments and regulatory agencies
    • "notice and comments period" lets ppl respond before rules are final
  17. amicus curiae brief
    • "friend of the court" brief
    • filed by an indiv or organization to present arguments in addition to those presented by the immediate parties to a case
  18. bundling
    • tactic in which PACs collect contributions from like-minded indivs (each limited to $2400) and present them to a candidate or political party as a "bundle"
    • to increase the PACs influence
  19. lobbyists
    • person who is employed by and acts for an organized interest group or corporation to try to influence policy decisions and positions in the executive and legislative branches
    • provide political info (ex. who supports or opposes legislation)
    • provides substantive info (ex. impact of proposed laws)
  20. *Revolving door*
    an employment cycle in which indivs who work for gov agencies that regulate interests eventually end up working for interest groups or businesses with the same policy concern
  21. issue network
    relationship among interest groups, congressional committees and subcommittees, and the gov agencies that share a common policy concern
  22. Litigation
    the use of courts to gain policy preferences through cases or amicus curiae
  23. Grassroots mobilization
    interest groups organize citizens, who act to influence policymakers
  24. PAC (political action committee)
    the political arm of an interest group that is legally entitled to raise funds on a voluntary basis from members, stockholders, or employees to contribute funds to candidates or political parties
  25. leadership PAC
    • PAC formed by an officeholder that collects contributions from indivs and other PACs and then makes contributions to other candidates and political parties
    • used to gain favor with candidates in political party
  26. Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act
    • campaign finance reform
    • largely banned party soft money, narrowed the definition of issue advocacy, and prohibited coporations and labor unions from using treasury funds for electoral purposes
  27. independent expenditures
    • Supreme Ct ruled that indivs, groups, and parties can spend unlimited amounts in campaigns for or against candidates as long as they operate independently from the candidates
    • must still be disclosed to the FEC (federal election commission)
  28. issue advocacy
    • Advocacy by an individual or group aimed to influence public-policy and resource allocation decisions within political institutions
    • soft money -- support candidate without saying "vote for"
  29. 527 organization
    political group organized under section 527 of the IRS Code that may accept and spend unlimited amounts of money on election activities so long as they are not spent on broadcast ads run in the last 30 days before a primary or 60 days before a general election in which a clearly identified candidate is referred to and a relevant electorate is targeted
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Chapter 6 vocab (interest groups)
interest group vocab
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