Micro Exam 2

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Micro Exam 2
2012-02-09 21:50:07

Micro Exam 2
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  1. Metabolism
    All biochemical process in a cell
  2. Catabolism
    • Breaking down molecules
    • exergonic reaction
    • energy releasing
  3. Anabolism
    • building up molecules
    • endergonic reaction
    • energy requiring
  4. ATP
    grabs energy released during exergonic reactions then holds onto enegry to use during endergonic.
  5. Free Energy Change ⌂G0,
    • the energy released that is available to do work
    • Amout gain or lost in a reaction
    • Exergonic is a negative value
    • Endergonic is a positive value
  6. Energy
    • Compacity to do work
    • potential or kinetic
  7. A.T.P
    Adenosine Triphosphate
  8. Calories
    Amount of heat necessary to raise temperature of 1 gram of water from 14.5C to 15.5C
  9. Laws of Thermodynamics
    • Energy is not created or distroyed
    • Some energy is always lost when converted from one form of energy to another form (entropy)
  10. N.A.D.
    Nicotinamide-adenine Dinucleotide
  11. F.A.D
    Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide
  12. Color produced on Psuedo F
    Fluoresein - yellow
  13. Color produced on Pseudo P
    Pyocyanin - blue/green
  14. First Stain used in the Ziehl-Neelsen Acid Fast Stain
    Carbol Fusion
  15. What is in the Acid Decolorizer
    Hydrocloric Acid and Ethylnal
  16. What is the counterstian used in Acid - Fast Staining
    Methylene Blue
  17. What is the first stain used in the Schaeffer-Fulton staining technique for endospores
    Malachite green
  18. What is the stain used in the optional staining technique for endospores
  19. What is the second stain used in the Schaeffer-Fulton staining technique
  20. What does N.A.D do
    it can accept both electrons and protons in order to become stable
  21. How do you get NADH
    NAD accepts 2 electrons and 2 protons, causing it to become more stable and reduce
  22. Enzymes
    • Biological catalysts
    • proteins
    • lower engery needed for activation
    • hold reactants in a certain way to start reaction
    • consintrate reactants against gradient
  23. What is activation energy
    • amount of energy need to start a reaction
    • the energy required to bring all molecules in a chemical reaction into the reactive state
  24. Fermentation
    is the least effective form
  25. Photophosphorylation
    • H+ on one side of the membrare
    • light engery does all the work pumping protons
    • occurs in phototrophic organisms
    • ATP is synthesized during photosynthetic electron flow from the activity of ATPase that couples the proton motive froce to ATP formation
  26. In what kind of organisms is O2 the terminal external electron receptor
  27. S, NO3-, SO43- are all external terminal electron receptors for this type of complete oxidation of organic compounds
  28. Descirbe substrate level phosphorylation
    • ATP is synthesized directly from an energy rich intermediate during steps in the catabolism of fermentable compounds
    • only type fermentors can use
  29. Oxidavite Phosphorylation
    • Also known as the electron transport phosphorylation
    • ATP is produced at the expense of the proton motive force
  30. Anhydride Bonds
    • Stores lots of enegry
    • enzymes which is either ATPsyntase/ATPase locks negative charges together
  31. Exergonic
    • enegry yielding reactions
    • energy releasing reactions
  32. Endergonic
    reactions that require energy
  33. Catalyst
    a substance that lowers the activation energy of a reaction, thereby increasing the reaction rate
  34. Oxidation
    the removal of an electron or electrons from a substance
  35. Reduction
    the addition of an electron or electrons to a substance
  36. Psychrophiles
    organisms with a low temperature tolerance