Ch.18 Bio

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Author:
Lpadlipsky
ID:
133937
Filename:
Ch.18 Bio
Updated:
2012-02-09 00:12:54
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lynn
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Description:
invertebrates
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  1. gastrovascular cavity
    a digestive compartment
  2. cnidocytes
    • specialized cells that help with defense and prety capture
    • stings or entangles prey
  3. bilateral symmetry
    • an animal can be divided equally by a single cut
    • animals are quite active and travel headfirst
  4. anterior
    distinct head
  5. posterior
    distinct end or tail
  6. dorsal
    back surface
  7. ventral
    bottom surface
  8. Platyhelminthes
    Flatworms
  9. Types of flatworms
    • Free-living flat worms
    • Flukes
    • Tapeworms
  10. Characteristics of Flatworms
    • bilaterally symmetrical
    • incomplete digestive tract
    • digestive cavity is the only space inside body
  11. Free-living flatworms
    • has a nervous system
    • highly branch gastrovascular system
    • have muscles
  12. Flukes
    • parasites--> infect humans and cause schistosomiasis
    • becomes infected when larvae penetrate skin
  13. Tapeworms
    • parasitic
    • no digestive tract-->absorb nutrients
    • Long ribbon of repeated units filled with male and f/m reproductive parts
  14. Body Cavity
    fluid filled space between digestive tract and the body wall

    sponges, cnidaria, and flatworms do not have this, all other animals do
  15. pseudocoelem
    • a body cavity not completely lined by tissue
    • from the mesoderm
  16. coelem
    completely lined by tissue from mesoderm
  17. Advantages of coelom
    • increases flexibility
    • allows internal organs to grow and move independently of outer body wall
    • prevents internal injuries
  18. Nematoda
    Roundworms
  19. Roundworms
    • has a cuticle
    • complete digestive tract
    • has pseudocoelom
    • anywhere there is rotting organic matter
  20. Mollusca
    Mollusks
  21. Types of Mollusks
    • gastropods
    • bivalves
    • cephalopods
  22. Characteristics of Mollusks
    • Consists of: foot (function in locomotion), visceral mass (contains most internal organs), and mantle (tissue that drapes over visceral mass)
    • Radula-scrapes up food
    • True coelom
    • Circulatory system
  23. Gastropods
    • Ex: snails and slugs
    • Only mollusks that live on land
    • Slugs lack a mantle, mantle cavity, and shell
  24. Bivalves
    • ex: oysters, clams, mussels, scallops
    • shells divided into 2
    • Dig and anchor with their foot (except for scallops)
  25. Cephalopods
    • ex: squids and octopuses
    • built for speed and agility
    • no shell
    • marine predators
  26. Segmentation
    subdivision of the body along its length into a series of repeated parts
  27. Annelida
    annelids
  28. Types of annelids
    • earthworms
    • polychaetes
    • leeches
  29. Characteristics of Annelids
    • distinct head and tail
    • segmented
    • bilateral symmetry
  30. Earthworms
    till the soil and improve soil's texture
  31. Polychaetes
    • largest group
    • has segmental appendages and hard bristles
  32. Leeches
    • carnivores
    • suck blood- used to remove excess blood
  33. Arthropoda
    arthropods
  34. Characteristics of Arthropods
    • jointed appendages
    • exoskeleton of chitin and protein
    • specialized segments
  35. Types of Arthropods
    • Horshoe crab
    • Arachnids
    • Crustaceans
    • Millipedes and Centipedes
    • Insects
  36. Exoskeleton
    • hard external skeleton
    • made of protein and chitin
  37. Molting
    process of shedding the exoskeleton an secreting a larger one
  38. Horshoe Crab
    has survived with little change for hundreds of millions of years
  39. Arachnids
    ex: scorpions, spiders, ticks, and mites
  40. Crustaceans
    ex: lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, crabs, and barnacles
  41. Millipedes and Centipedes
    • superficially resemble annelids
    • jointed legs --> arthropods
  42. Echinodermata
    Echinoderms
  43. Echinoderms
    sea stars, sand dollars, and sea urchins
  44. Characteristics
    • all marine
    • no segments
    • radially symmetrical
    • bilateral larva stage
    • spiny skin --> endoskeleton
    • water vascular system
    • regeneration
  45. Features in Chordate
    • dorsal, hollow nerve chord
    • notochord
    • pharyngeal slits
    • post-anal tail
    • segmentation
  46. Chordata
    chardate
  47. notochord
    flexible, supportive, longitudinal rod located between digestive tract and nerve chord
  48. pharyngeal slits
    gill structures in the pharynx
  49. post-anal tail
    tail posterior to anus
  50. vertebrates
    animals with a segmented backbone
  51. The invertebrates Chordates
    • tunicates
    • lancelets
  52. Tunicates
    • stationary
    • suspension feeders
    • as adults have pharyngeal slits
    • larva have all four features
  53. Lancelets
    • segmented muscles
    • closest living relatives to vertebrates
    • suspension feeders
    • have four features

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