Zoology Unit #3
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What is the phylum name of flatworms?
What are examples of the Phylum Platyheminthes
Tapeworm, plathynian, fluke
What are the key evolutionary advancements of the Phylum Platyheminthes?
Organs and Bilateral symmetary
What type of colem does the Phylum Platyheminathes have?
What is the body describtion of the Phylum Platyheminthes?
Flat, no true segmenation
What systems are involved with the Phylum Platyheminthes?
Nervous, and Excretory (osmoregulatory), and digestive
What type of nutitional mode does the Phylum Platyheminthes have?
Free-living and most are parasitic
What is it called when a organism has all three germ layers?
What type of body wall does the Platyheminthes have?
- Non-cellular matix and more protections
- gland cells in epidermis
What are the three muscles that Platyheminthes have?
Longitude, Circluar, and Obilique
Is the digestive system in Platyheminthes incomplete or complete?
What organs are in the digestive system?
Pharynx, mouth/anus, intestine
What is involved in the Excretion and Osmoregulation system?
It is the water balanced and waste regulatory
What organs are involved in the Excretion System?
flame cells, and weir
What is a flame cell?
Cell that filters water and balances salts and sugars
What is a network of protonephridia that join and form a series of tubes that connect with holes that allow for the emptying of wastes.
What is the structure in the nervous system that acts as a brain for the Platyheminthes?
Does the Platyheminthes reproduce sexually or asexually?
- sexually-cross fertilization
How does the Platyheminthes breathe?
During respiration they diffuse through the skin
What are the classes of phylum Platyheminthes?
What is the Class Turbellaria consist of?
What does the Plathynian (class turbellaria) have on their epidermis?
Ciliated, with gland cells for muscous secretion
How does the Class Turbellia (plathynians) move?
The three different muscles,(longitude, Circluar, and Oblique)
epidermis:Gland cells and Ciliated epidermal cells
What happens when the cicular muscles contact in the class turbellia (plathynians)
Skinner and Longer
What happens when the longitudal muscles contract in Class turbellia (plathynains)
Shorter and Fatter
What happens when the oblique muscles contract in Class Turbellia (plathynains)
What is the nutritional mode of the Class Turbellia (plathynians)
How does the Class Turbellia aquire food?
The planarians use their auricles as a sense of smell and taste to track their food. Once the plathynain found it they screte mucous so they can trap the food because the tiny insects they eat are faster then they are. Then the mouth opens and the pharynex comes out to suck the food up. Once it is sucked up through the pharynex it goes into the intestine and the y shaped structure adds additional surface area
What are the two sensory organs that the Class Turbellia have?
What does the Ocelli do?
What does the auricles do?
How do the Class Turbellia asxually reproduce?
Fragmentation or fission
What is the process of Class Turbellia sexual reproduction?
The plathynains are hermaphoditic and both parts work all the time. The plathynains use this technique called fencing and whoever loses becomes the female. After the winner copulates into the genial pore of the female it fertilizies the female the lays the endolecithal eggs into the cocoons
What is the Class Flukes are involved with?
What is the nutritional mode of Class Trematoda (Fluke)
What is a basic describtion of Class Trematoda (Fluke)
- Thick teguments and one or more suckers
- Lack External Cilia
- Organs for Adhesion
How is a thicker tegument an advantage for flukes?
Because they have to survive inside the host which has a resistant to it, the host DOESNT want it in there
How does the Class Trematoda (Fluke) acquire food?
Feeding on the cells of the host
Digestive tract includes: Mouth, Pharynx, Intestine
How is the sensory arrangement in the Class Trematoda?
poorly developed, similar to Class Turbellia but no sesory organs
Are flukes at a disadvantage due to their lacking special sensory organs?
No, because they live in dark and no need to search for the food
What is the intermediate host in the Class Trematoda?
What is the Definitive host in the Class Trematoda?
What is the step by step reproductive process of the Class Trematoda?
- 1. Adult Fluke inhabits the a part of the host, hemaphoditic and the cross-fertilization. If two flukes find one another they will copulate each other and eggs fertilizatized internally.
- 2. Egg is ectolectihal the yolk is outside embryo
- 3. Eggs produced released into the digestive system leaves via FECES
- 4. Eggs contain a larva called miracidium
- 5. miracidium becomes sporocyst
- 6. Sporocysts become redia
- 7. Redia become cercaria
- 8.Cercaria become matacercarial cyst
What is the Chinese liver fluke?
What is the Blood Fluke
What class is the tapeworm involved with?
What is the nutritional mode of the Class Cestoda (tapeworm)
What is involved in the body type involved with Class Cestoda?
Well developed muscles, no special sense organs and their excretory and nervous systems
What is the body plan of the Class Cestoda?
- Flat ribbon like, grayish white..
- two major areas-Scolexes&Strobila
What structure is essentially the head of the tapeworm, it is a knob shaped structure with circling it. Many tapeworms also have a ring of hooks at the anterior most portion.
Without a mouth or a digestive system, how do the Class Cestoda obtain their food?
They absorb it directly across the body wall. They don't need a digestive system.
What structure is a chain of proglottids that make up the rest the body. Each proglottid is primary composed of reproductive organs?
What is the reproductive system of Class Cestoda?
- Monoecious (cross-fertiziation)
- Ectolecithal development
- Each proglottid will contain both sex organs but not simultaneously
What is the step by step process of the reproduction of the Class Cestoda?
- Testes first - produce sperm - leaves via genital pore
- Testes break down - disapear
- Ovary forms second
- Sperm enters genital pore and fertilizes eggs contained within
- Proglottid becomes gravid
- Proglottid reaches end and goes out via FECES
What is the Phylum name for roundworms?
What are examples of Phylum Nematoda?
Pinworm, Ascaris, Filarial worms
What are the key evolutionary advancement of Phylum Nematoda?
Pseudocoelmate (not completely lined with mesoderm)
Where is Phylum Nematoda located?
What is the nutritional mode of Phylum Nematoda?
Mostly Parasites, some free-living
What is the form and function of Phylum Nematoda?
- Hydrostatic Skeleton
- Organ Function
What is the hyrdostatic skeleton?
Pseudocoel permits the formation of skeleton that is based on a constant amount of water under high pressure. Has Longitudinal muscles
What is the fluid filled environment, that helps with absorbtion in phylum nematoda?
What is the organ function benefit?
Preforming less organ deformity
What is the body wall structure of the phylum nematoda?
Thick non cuticle layer
Where is respiration taken place in phylum nematoda?
Directly through the moist body wall
What is the digestive tract consist of in phylum nematoda
Mouth, pharynx, intestine, rectum, anus
Is the digestive system in phylum nematoda complete or incomplete?
Complete, starts with mouth and ends with an anus
What is the rectum?
It is were the feces are stored
What is the nervous system of phylum nemaoda?
Ring of nerve tissue and ganglia which leads to small anterior nerves and dorsal and ventral nerve cord
What is the sensory organs of phylum nematoda?
- Sensory Papilla
What type of sensory organ receives physical stimuli and they are concentrated around the head and tail
What sensory organs come in pairs and they recive chemical stimuli and found either on head or the posterior?
What sensory organ is found on the anterior side of phylum nematoda
What sensory organ is found on the posterior side of phylum nematoda
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