T4 MENTAL HEALTH #3

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Anonymous
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133952
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T4 MENTAL HEALTH #3
Updated:
2012-02-09 00:49:56
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T4 MENTAL HEALTH
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T4 MENTAL HEALTH #3
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  1. DELIRIUM
    • Rapid Onset over a short Period of time (hours to days)
    • Caused secondary to another medical condition, such as infection, or to substance abuse.
    • Reversible if Dx & Tx are prompt

    • S/S OF DELIRIUM:
    • Impairments in: Memory, judgment, ability to focus, & ability to calculate, Impairments fluctuate throughout the day
    • Level of Conciousness is usually altered
    • Personality change is Rapid
  2. DEMENTIA
    • Gradual Deterioration of function over months or years; exact onset is difficult to determine
    • Irreversible & Progressive

    • S/S OF DEMENTIA
    • Impairments in Memory , judgment, ability to focus, & ability to Calculate; Impairments do not change throughout the day
    • Personality change is Gradual

    • CAUSES OF DEMENTIA
    • Alzheimers Disease- progressive deterioration in function due to neuro transmitter deficiency most prevalent form of dementia & characterized by memory loss, deficits in thought process, & behavioral changes in 4 stages
    • Vascular Disease - due to significant cerebro vascular disease & caused by multiple infarcts in the cortex
    • HIV/AIDS - r/t to brain infections with a range of symptoms from acute delirium to profound dementia
    • Head Trauma - intellectual & Memory difficulties after the Trauma
    • Parkinson's Disease - loss of nerve cells & progressive decreasein Dopamin activity
    • Huntington's Disease - geneticaly transmitted disease in w/c a profound state of dementia ataxia occurs within 5-10 years of onset
    • Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease - aka Mad Cow Disease - transmissible agent known as "slow" virus clinical course is rapid with progressive deterioration & death within 1 year
    • Korsakoff's Syndrome - progressive dementia caused by thiamine deficiency, usually occuring due to long term alcohol abuse
    • Dementia - due to a general medication condition
  3. STAGES OF ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE
    • Stage I, Forgetfulness - short term memory loss, decrease attention span, subtle personality changes, mild cognitive, difficulty with depth perception
    • Stage II, Confusion - obvious memory loss, impaired judgment, confabulation, wandering, sundowning, irritability & agitation, intensifications of symptoms when client is stressed, fatigued, or in new environment depression r/t awareness of decrease capacities
    • Stage III, Ambulatory Dementia - loss of reasoning ability, increasing lossof expresive language, loss of ability to perform ADLs, more withdrawn
    • Stage IV, End Stage - impaired or absent, cognitive, communication &/or motor skills, bowel & bladder incontinence, inability to recognize family members or self in the mirror

    • DATA COLLECTION
    • Use the Functional Dementia Scale, a tool that shows the clients ability for self care, the extent of memory loss, mood changes & the degree of danger to self & others
  4. DEFENSE MECHANISMS IN COGNITIVE DISORDERS
    • Denial - both the client & family members may refuse to believe that changes are taking place, even when obvious
    • Confabulation - client may make up stories about events or activities that she may not remember
    • Perseveration - Client avoids unswering questions by repeating phrases or behavior

    • Nursing Interventions:
    • Ensure environmental safety, lowered bed, emoval of scatter rugs
    • Provide support to caregivers, recommend support groups & respite care
    • Establish a routine; ensure all caregivers apply the routine; provide consistency in caregivers
  5. AUTISM
    Impaired Communication - language delay. echolalia, failure to imitate

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