302 3 Conception

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302 3 Conception
2012-02-09 11:56:31

HDF 302
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  1. risks of teenage pregnancy
    • birth defects
    • infant death
    • low birth rate
    • lower responsiveness to babies
  2. infertility prevalence
    8.5% of couples
  3. infertility defined
    a couple who has tried to become pregnant for a year
  4. infertiity in men
    • low sperm count
    • low sperm motility
    • infectious disease
    • overheating of the testes
    • smoking
  5. infertility in women
    • irregular ovulation
    • poor egg quality
    • polycystic ovarian syndrome
    • aging
    • obstruction or malfunctions of the reproductive tract
  6. enhancing fertility
    • natural methods: timing sexual intercourse
    • medical interventions: clomid
  7. infertillity options
    • artificial insemination
    • In Vitro fertilization
    • surrogate mother
    • adoption
  8. Prenatal Development
    normal gestation 280 days
  9. prenatal development 3 periods
    • germinal stage - first 2 weeks
    • embryonic stage - 3-8 weeks
    • fetal stage - 3rd month - birth
  10. germinal stage
    • blastocyst - cells separate into groups that will become different structures
    • inner part of blastocyst has two distinct layers that form a thickened mass of cells alled embryonic disk, these cells eventually become the fetus
  11. embryonic stage
    • development follows cephalocaudal (head to toe) and proximodistal (near to far)
    • 1/3 of misscarriages happen during this stage
    • head and blood vessels form
    • arms buds and legs appear
    • nervous system and brain develop
    • display rudimentary behavior patterns, such as heartbeat, respiration, and whole body jerky movements
    • amniotic fluid
    • placenta
  12. fetal stage
    • major organ systems at end of first trimester
    • second trimester consists of further maturation and gain in size
  13. 3 months pregnant
    • fingers begin to open close, mouth sucks, face formed, eyes, ears, nails on fingers and toes
    • fatigue, sleeplessness, frequent urination, nausea, constipation, heart burn, food aversions or cravings, headaches, dizziness
  14. 6 months pregnant
    • breathing motions, hears mother, cortex of brain develops, strong grip, open/close eyes, vocal cords functional, hiccups, lanugo, vernix
    • feelings baby kick, heartburn, headaches, dizziness, nasal congestion, bleeding gums, increased appetite
  15. lanugo
    • grows on eyes and scalp
    • sometimes present at birth
    • usually shed at 7 or 8 months gestation
  16. vernix
    • cheesy like substance that covers a baby's skin
    • protects skin from amniotic fluid
  17. Tetratogens
    environmental agents responsible for birth defects
  18. amniocentesis
    • performed on mother 14-16 weeks gestation
    • needle takes cells from amniotic fluid, cells are grown in a culture and examined for chromosomal abnormalities