Card Set Information

2012-02-10 01:22:54

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  1. Perception
    The process through which people take raw sensations from the enviroment and interpret them, using knowledge, experience, and understanding of thw world, so that the sensations become meaningful experiences
  2. Computational approach
    an approach to preception that focuses on how computation by the nervous system translate raw sensory stimulation into an experience of reality
  3. constructivists approach
    a view of perception taken by those who argue that the perceptual system uses fragments of sensory information to construct an image of reality
  4. ecological approach
    an approach to perception maintaining that humans and other species are so well adapted to their natural environment that many aspects of the world are preceived without requiring higher-level analysis and inferences
  5. psychophysics
    an area of research focusing on the relationship between the physical characteristics of environmental stimuli and the psychological experiences those stimuli produce
  6. absolute threshold
    the minimum amount of stimulus energy that can be detected 50 percent of the time
  7. subliminal stimuli
    stimuli that are too weak or breif to be perceived
  8. supraliminal stimuli
    stimuli that are strong enough to be consistently perceived
  9. sensitivity
    the ability to detect a stimulus
  10. response criterion
    the internal rule a person uses to decide whether or not to report a stimulus
  11. signal-detection theory
    a mathematical model of what determins a person's report that a newar-threshold stimulus has or has not occurred
  12. just noticable difference
    the smallest detectable difference in stimulus energy
  13. Weber's laws
    a law stating that the smallest detectable difference in stimulus energy is a constant fraction of the intensity of the stimulus
  14. perceptual organization
    the task of determining what edges and other stimuli go together to form an object
  15. auditory scene analysis
    the perceptual process through which sounds are mentally represented and interprested
  16. depth perception
    the ability to perceive distance
  17. interposition
    a depth cue whereby closer objects block one's view of things farther away
  18. relative size
    a depth cue whereby larger objects are perceived as clser than smaller ones
  19. height in the visual field
    a depth cue whereby objects higher in the visual field are preceived as more distant
  20. texture gradient
    a graduated change in the texture, or grain, of the visual feld, whereby objects with finer, less detailed textures are preceived as more distant
  21. linear perspective
    a depth cue whereby objects closer to the poin at which two lines appear to conver are preceived as eing at a greater distance
  22. motion parallax
    a depth cue whereby a difference in the apparent rate of movement of different objects provides information abou the relative distance of those objects
  23. accommodation
    the ability of the lens of the eye to change its shape and bend light so that objects are in focus
  24. convergence
    a depth cue involving the rotation of theyes to project the image of an object on each retina
  25. binocular disparity
    a depth cue based on the difference between two retinal images of the world
  26. looming
    a motion cue involving a rapid expansion in size of an image so that it fills the available space on the retina
  27. stroboscopic motion
    an illusion in which lights or images flashed in rapid succession are preceived as moving
  28. perceptual constancy
    the perception of objects as contstant size, shape, color, and other properties despite changes in their retinal image
  29. top-down processing
    aspects of recognition that are guided by higher-level cognitive processes and psychological factors such as expectations
  30. bottom-up processing
    aspects of recognition that depend first on the information about the stimlus that comes to the brain from the sensory receptors
  31. schemas
    mental representations of what we know, and have come to expect, about the world
  32. PDP model
    an approach to understanding objects are thought to be simultaneously analyzed by a number of widely distibuted, but connected, neural units in the brain
  33. attention
    the process of directing and focusing psychological resources to enhance perception, performance, and mental experience