T4 MENTAL HEALTH #3

Card Set Information

Author:
BHAVES
ID:
133979
Filename:
T4 MENTAL HEALTH #3
Updated:
2012-02-12 16:11:39
Tags:
T4 MENTAL HEALTH
Folders:

Description:
T4 MENTAL HEALTH #3
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user BHAVES on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. DELIRIUM
    • Rapid Onset over a short Period of time (hours to days)
    • Caused secondary to another medical condition, such as infection, or to substance abuse.
    • Reversible if Dx & Tx are prompt

    • S/S OF DELIRIUM:
    • Impairments in: Memory, judgment, ability to focus, & ability to calculate, Impairments fluctuate throughout the day Level of Conciousness is usually altered Personality change is Rapid
  2. DEMENTIA
    • Gradual Deterioration of function over months or years; exact onset is difficult to determine
    • Irreversible & Progressive

    • S/S OF DEMENTIA
    • Impairments in Memory , judgment, ability to focus, & ability to Calculate; Impairments do not change throughout the day
    • Personality change is Gradual

    • CAUSES OF DEMENTIA
    • Alzheimers Disease- progressive deterioration in function due to neuro transmitter deficiency most prevalent form of dementia & characterized by memory loss, deficits in thought process, & behavioral changes in 4 stages
    • Vascular Disease - due to significant cerebro vascular disease & caused by multiple infarcts in the cortex
    • HIV/AIDS - r/t to brain infections with a range of symptoms from acute delirium to profound dementia
    • Head Trauma - intellectual & Memory difficulties after the Trauma
    • Parkinson's Disease - loss of nerve cells & progressive decreasein Dopamin activity Huntington's Disease - geneticaly transmitted disease in w/c a profound state of dementia ataxia occurs within 5-10 years of onset
    • Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease - aka Mad Cow Disease - transmissible agent known as "slow" virus clinical course is rapid with progressive deterioration & death within 1 year
    • Korsakoff's Syndrome - progressive dementia caused by thiamine deficiency, usually occuring due to long term alcohol abuse
    • Dementia - due to a general medication condition
  3. STAGES OF ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE
    • Stage I, Forgetfulness - short term memory loss, decrease attention span, subtle personality changes, mild cognitive, difficulty with depth perception
    • Stage II, Confusion - obvious memory loss, impaired judgment, confabulation, wandering, sundowning, irritability & agitation, intensifications of symptoms when client is stressed, fatigued, or in new environment depression r/t awareness of decrease capacities
    • Stage III, Ambulatory Dementia - loss of reasoning ability, increasing lossof expresive language, loss of ability to perform ADLs, more withdrawn
    • Stage IV, End Stage - impaired or absent, cognitive, communication &/or motor skills, bowel & bladder incontinence, inability to recognize family members or self in the mirror

    • DATA COLLECTION
    • Use the Functional Dementia Scale, a tool that shows the clients ability for self care, the extent of memory loss, mood changes & the degree of danger to self & others
  4. DEFENSE MECHANISMS IN COGNITIVE DISORDERS
    • Denial - both the client & family members may refuse to believe that changes are taking place, even when obvious Confabulation - client may make up stories about events or activities that she may not remember
    • Perseveration - Client avoids unswering questions by repeating phrases or behavior

    • Nursing Interventions:
    • Ensure environmental safety, lowered bed, removal of scatter rugs
    • Provide support to caregivers, recommend support groups & respite care
    • Establish a routine; ensure all caregivers apply the routine; provide consistency in caregivers
  5. AUTISM
    • Impaired Communication - language delay. echolalia, failure to imitate
    • Impaired Social Interactions - lack of responsiveness & interests in others. Avoidance of contact, lack of eye to eye contact, failure to cuddle or be comforted, avoidance of touch, lack of friendship.
    • Stereotypical Behaviors - rigid adherence to routines, bizarre behaviors such as hand or finger flapping, clapping, rocking, swaying, head banging, hand biting, preoccupation with certain repetitive activities
    • Usually observed before 3 years of age
  6. ASPERGER'S DISORDER
    • Occurs later in childhood, usually when the child enters school
    • Later onset than autism, with less cognitive or language delay
  7. ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD)
    Key Symptoms include: Inattention & Hyperactivity
  8. OPPOSITIONAL DEFIANT DISORDER
    • Behaviors usually seen at home & directed toward person best known
    • Generally do not violate the rights of others
    • Can develop into conduct disorder
  9. CONDUCT DISORDER
    Lack of remorse or care for the feelings of others; bullies, threatens, & intimidates others; physically cruel to others and/or animals, belief that aggression is justified
  10. NURSING INTERVENTIONS FOR THE CHILD WITH PDD
    • Use one on one interactions
    • Identify desired behaviors & reward them
    • Role Model social skills, role play situations that Involve conflict
    • Limit self stimulating & ritualistic behaviors by providing alternative play activities
  11. SUBSTANCE DEPENDENCE
    • Tolerance - a need for higher & higher doses of a substance to achieve the desired effect, such as requiring larger amounts of alcohol to feel euphoric
    • Withdrawal - Stopping or reduction of intake that results in specific physical & psychological s/s such as tremors headaches & other symptoms when alcohol is not available
  12. ALCOHOL (ETHANOL)
    • A Laboratory Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) of 0.08% is considered legally intoxicated for adults operating automobiles in every U.S. state
    • Death could occur from acute toxicity in levels > 0.35%
  13. DELIRIUM TREMENS (DTs)
    Symptoms: all of the previous symptoms plus severe disorientation, psychotic symptoms (ex delusions & hallucinations ), severe hypertension, cardiac dysrhytmias, delirium; may progress to death
  14. DATA COLLECTION FOR ALCOHOL (ETHANOL) ABUSE
    • C - has anyone ever told you that you should CUT down on your dringking/drug use
    • A - have people ANNOYED you by criticizing you for drinking/using drugs
    • G - have you ever felt GUILTY for drinking/using drugs
    • E - have you ever taken an EYE-OPENER to steady your nerves or get rid of hangover
  15. MANAGING ALCOHOL WITHDRAWAL
    Provide Seizure Precautions
  16. MAINTAINING ALCOHOL ABSTINENCE
    • Disulfiram (Antabuse) is a daily oral medication that is a type of Aversion Therapy
    • Inform client of danger of drinking alcohol & to avoid products with Alcohol
  17. OPIOIDS
    • Intended effects: rush of euphoria, relief from pain, pupil constriction, constipation
    • Abstinence Syndrome: sweating, rhinorrhea, piloerection, tremors, irritability, severe, weakness, nausea, vomiting, dilated pupils, muscle & bone pain, muscle spasms (self limiting in 7-10 days, not life threatening
  18. BARBITURATES
    • The names of some common ones (and brand names) include:
    • Pentobarbital (Nembutal)
    • Secobarbital ( Seconal)
    • Amobarbital (Amytal)
    • Phenobarbital (Luminal)
  19. BENZODIAZEPINES
    • Intended Effects: dec. anxiety & sedation
    • Toxic Effects: Inc. drowsiness & sedation, life threatening hypotension (rare) resp. depression
    • An Antidote, Flumazenil (Romazicon), is used IV to relieve overdose
  20. CANNABIS
    • Intended Effects: Euphoria, Sedation, Hallucinations
    • Causes Amotivational Syndrome (Apathy), red eyes, Compulsive eating/laughing, impaired memory (long term use)
  21. PSYCHEDELICS
    • Intended Effects: Heightened sense of self & altered Perceptions
    • May have panic attacks, flashbacks (visual disturbances or hallucinations) which can occur intermittently for years
  22. SUBSTANCE ABUSE & DEPENDENCY
    Dual Diagnosis - clients has both a mental illness, as well as a substance or process abuse

    • Nursing Interventions:
    • Assess Chemical Use: Date of last substance use/compulsive behavior
  23. CARE OF THOSE WHO ARE DYING &/OR GRIEVING
    Palliative Care is a management approach for end of life issues that prevents, relieves reduces, &/or erases the symptoms of the disease without compromising medical interventions
  24. HOSPICE CARE
    • Care is provided for the terminally ill client as as the family
    • Uses an interdisciplinary approach, priority is symptom control
    • Hospice services may be provided in a facility or at home
    • Hospice Care can be given within 6 months of expected death; family bereavement services
  25. CRISIS MANAGEMENT
    Crisis - acute, time limited (4-6 weeks) event in which the client experiences an emotional response that cannot bemanaged with the clients normal coping mechanisms

    • Basis of Crisis Intervention
    • Assisting the client to regain a normal level of functioning, psychologic equilibrium
  26. SUICIDE
    • Suicide is the intentional act of killing oneself
    • Suicide ideation is having thoughts about committing suicide
    • Parasuicide is inflicting a nonlethal injury to oneself with the intent to die or commit bodily harm (suicidal gestures)
  27. DATA COLLECTION
    • Ask the client if he is thinking about hurting himself, always use a follow-up question if first answer was negative
    • Determine the lethality of the suicidal plan; the more specific, the more lethal, & accessto the planned method, the greater the risk

    • Nursing Interventions
    • Limit amount of time at risk client spends alone
    • If Client goes from sad and depressed to happy & peaceful, high risk suicide
    • Assign staff to observe the client closely or consider one on one constant supervision
    • Remove all glass, metal silverware, electrical cords, vases, belts, shoes laces, nail files, tweezers, razors, perfume, shampoo, bags
  28. FAMILY & COMMUNITY VIOLENCE
    • Nursing Interventions
    • Crisis Intervention Techniques may be useful

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview