A&P

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Author:
babaghannouj
ID:
133983
Filename:
A&P
Updated:
2012-02-09 04:15:44
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anatomy physiology
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Description:
test for ch 5-8
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  1. 6 functions of integumentary system
    • protection - physical, chemical, biological
    • temperature regulation - dilation of dermal vessels and sweat at ^ temperatures
    • cutaneous sensations
    • metabolic functions - vitamin D and collagenase
    • blood reservoir - up to 5% of bodies blood volume
    • excretion - nitrogenous wastes and salt in sweat
  2. why are serious burns life threatening
    • fluid loss
    • massive infection
  3. skin markings
    • friction ridges - (fingerprints) epidermal ridges on deeper papillary ridges
    • cleavage lines - separation lines of collagen bundles
    • flexure lines - dermal folds at or near joints
  4. types of skin cancer
    • basal cell carcinoma - least malignant, ^ common
    • squamous cell carcinoma - common
    • melanoma - dangerous
  5. degrees of burns
    • 1st - epidermal damage only
    • 2nd - blisters
    • 3rd - entire thickness of skin damaged, no pain immediately because nerves are destroyed
  6. development of skin
    • epidermis - < ectoderm
    • dermis and hypodermis < mesoderm
  7. developmental aspects from birth to adult
    • sebaceous gland activity ^
    • accumulative environmental assaults show after 30
    • scaling and dermititus ^ with aging
  8. skeletal cartilages
    • hyaline - support, flexibility and resilience
    • elastic - similar to hyaline but springier
    • fibrocartilage - collagen fibers for great tensile strength
  9. functions of bones
    • support
    • protection
    • movement
    • storage
    • blood cell formation
    • triglyceride storage
  10. classification of bones by shape
    • long - femur
    • short - patella, carpals
    • flat - most skull bones, sternum
    • irregular - vertibrae
  11. bone cells and functions
    • osteogenic - stem cells in periosteum and endosteum that give rise to osteoblasts
    • osteoblasts - make bone
    • osteocytes - mature bone cells
    • osteoclasts - break down bone
  12. intramembranous ossification
    • membrane bone develops from fibrous membrane
    • forms flat bones (clavicle, cranial bones)
    • 1. ossification centers appear in the fibrous connective tissue membrane
    • 2. bone matrix (osteoid) is secreted within the fibrous membrane and calcifies
    • 3. woven bone and periosteum form
    • 4. lamellar bone replaces woven bone just deep to the periosteum. red marrow appears
  13. endochondral ossification
    • bone forms from cartilage
    • 1. bone collar forms around hyaline cartilage model
    • 2. cartilage in the center of the diaphysis calcifies and then develops cavities
    • 3. the periosteal bud invades the internal cavities and spongy bone begins to form
    • 4. diaphysis elongates and a medullary cavity forms as ossification continues. secondary ossification centers appear in the epiphyses in prep for stage 5
    • 5. epiphyses ossify. when complete, hyaline cartilage only remains at the epiphyseal plates and articular cartilages
  14. 4 functional zones of long bone growth
    • at the epiphyseal plate
    • 1. proliferation
    • 2. hypertrophic
    • 3. calcification
    • 4. ossification (osteogenic)
  15. low blood calcium lvls
    • parathyroid glands release PTH
    • osteoclasts degrade bone and release calcium
    • increased blood calcium
  16. ^ blood calcium lvls
    • parathyroid glands release calcitonin
    • osteoblasts deposit calcium salts
    • blood calcium lowers
  17. steps of bone fracture repair
    • 1. hematoma forms
    • 2. fibrocartilaginous callus forms
    • 3. bony callus formation
    • 4. bone remodelling
  18. developmental aspects of skeletal system
    • nearly all bones completely ossified by 25
    • bone mass decreases starting in 4th decade
    • rate of loss determined by genetics and environmental factors
    • old age - resorption predominates
  19. 7 bones of orbital cavity
    • sphenoid
    • ethmoid
    • palatine
    • zygomatic
    • maxilla
    • lacrimal
    • frontal
  20. 5 bones of nasal cavity
    • ethmoid
    • inferior nasal conchae
    • vomer
    • maxilla
    • palatine
    • (Every Infamous Villain Makes Pie)
  21. paranasal sinuses
    • frontal
    • ethmoid
    • maxilla
    • sphenoid
  22. 8 cranial bones
    • 2 parietal
    • 2 temporal
    • occipital
    • sphenoid
    • frontal
    • ethmoid
  23. 14 facial bones
    • 2 zygomatic
    • 2 lacrimal
    • 2 nasal
    • 2 palatine
    • 2 inferior nasal conchae
    • 2 maxilla
    • vomer
    • mandible
  24. 3 arches of the foot
    • medial longitudinal
    • lateral longitudinal
    • transverse
  25. fontanelles
    • unossified remnants of membrane between fetal skull bones
    • anterior
    • posterior
    • mastoid
    • sphenoid
  26. fetal skull
    • fontanelles
    • mandible and frontal bones are unfused
  27. skeletal growth rates
    • birth - cranium huge relative to face
    • 9 mos. - cranium is half adult size
    • mandible and maxilla is foreshortened but lengthens with age
    • arms and legs grow faster than trunk leading to adult proportions
    • thoracic and sacral curvatures there at birth
  28. developmental aspects of skeleton in old age
    • intervertebral discs become thin, less hydrated and less elastic
    • ^ risk of disc herniation
    • loss of stature by several cm common by age 50
    • costal cartilages ossify, causing thorax to become rigid
    • all bones lose mass
  29. joints - definition
    • articulation
    • where 2 bones meet
  30. functional classification of joints
    • synarthroses - no movement
    • amphiarthroses - little movement
    • diarthroses - freely movable
  31. structural classification of joints
    • fibrous
    • cartilaginous
    • synovial
  32. fibrous joints
    • most are synarthrotic
    • sutures - skull
    • syndesmoses - fibula/tibula
    • gomphoses - teeth in sockets
  33. cartilaginous joints
    • bones united by cartilage
    • sychondroses - epiphyseal plate, 1st rib/sternum
    • symphysis - pubic symphysis, between vertebrae - amphiarthrotic
  34. features of synovial joints
    • 1 articular cartilage : hyaline cartilage
    • 2 joint (synovial) cavity
    • 3 articular (joint) cavity
    • 4 synovial fluid
    • 5 reinforcing ligaments - capsular, extracapsular, intracapsular
    • 6 rich nerve and blood vessel supply
  35. friction reducing structures associated with joints
    • bursae
    • tendon sheaths
  36. stabilizing factors at joints
    • shapes of articular surfaces (minor role)
    • ligament number and location (limited role)
    • muscle tone that keeps tendons that cross the joint taut
  37. types of synovial joints
    • plane - intercarpal/tarsal - nonaxial, gliding
    • hinge - elbow, interphalangeal - uniaxial
    • ball and socket - shoulder, hip - multiaxial
    • pivot - radio/ulnar, atlas/axis - uniaxial
    • saddle - carpal/metacarpal joint of thumb - biaxial
    • condyloid - metacarpal/phalangeal - biaxial

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