Unit 3 Test

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myflurrygirl
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133995
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Unit 3 Test
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2012-02-09 13:24:16
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Review for the unit 3 test
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  1. What is the function of carbohydrates?
    • Primary energy source - cellulose (polysaccharide)
    • Fibre, starch (polysaccharide) energy storage in plants
  2. What is the function of lipids?
    Primary energy storage in animals; aid in vitamin absorption; insulation; component of cell membrane; making some other chemicals.
  3. What is the function of protein?
    • Functional (ie enzymes building, breaking and rearranging molecules; hemoglobin)
    • Structural (ie collagen making up bone and tendons)
  4. What are the subunits of carbohydrates?
    Monosaccharides (general formula of 1C:2H:1O)
  5. What are the subunits of lipids?
    Glycerol and fatty acids
  6. What are the subunits of protein?
    • Aminal acids (8 essential)
    • Polypeptides (short chains of amino acids)
  7. What are examples of carbohydrates?
    • Monosaccharides: glucose, lactose, galactose
    • Disaccharides: sucrose, lactose, maltose
    • Polysaccharides: starch/amylose, cellulose, glycogen
  8. What are examples of lipids?
    • Triglycerides
    • Unsaturated fatty acids (double bond between carbon atoms; bent shape; liquid at room temp)
    • Saturated fatty acids (single bonds between carbon atoms; straight shape; solid at room temp)
  9. What are examples of protein?
    • Enzymes
    • Polypeptide
  10. Where does digestion of carbohydrates start?
    Mouth
  11. Where does digestion of lipids start?
    Small intenstine (duodenum)
  12. Where does digestion of protein start?
    Stomach
  13. What enzymes digest carbohydrates?
    Saliva contains amylase for breaking down amylose/starch; maltase breaks down maltose
  14. What enzymes digest lipids?
    • Lipase breaks apart triglycerides
    • Bile salts break large fat globules into small fat globules
  15. What enzymes digest protein?
    • Pepsin (stomach)
    • Trypsin (small intestine)
    • Peptidases (small intestine) breaks down polypeptides into amino acids
  16. Define denature
    When proteins change shape at high temperatures
  17. Define substrate
    A molecule upon which an enzyme acts
  18. Define active site
    The place on an enzyme where a substrate attaches
  19. Define functional group
    Clusters of atoms that give compounds specific characteristics
  20. Describe mouth
    • Ingestion and digestion
    • Physical digestion uses teeth
    • Salivary glands secrete saliva which starts chemical digestion and lubricates food
    • Tongue moves food around until it forms a bolus
  21. Describe esophagus
    • Ingestion
    • Connects mouth to stomach
    • Uses peristalsis to move food
  22. Describe stomach
    • Digestion
    • Sphincter muscles control the food into and out of the stomach
    • Can expand to 1.5L
    • Muscular organ contracts/relaxes, churning food
    • Mucus lines the stomach protecting tissue from digestive juices
    • HCl helps break down food and kill foreign invaders
    • Stomach extremely acidic
    • Some chemical digestion (pepsin)
    • Small amount of absorption
  23. Describe small intestine
    • Digestion and absorption
    • Most chemical digestion occurs in the duodenum
    • Chyme from stomach enters duodenum
    • Pancreatic secretions raise pH of chyme
    • Secretions from gallbladder and pancreas aid in chemical digestion
    • Villi increase the surface area of small intestine for absorption
  24. Define duodenum
    The first 25cm of the small intestine
  25. What is chyme?
    Partially digested food
  26. What do villi do?
    • Inside each villi is a network of capillaries and lymph vessels
    • Monosaccharides and amino acids are absorbed into capillaries
    • Glycerol and fatty acids enter lyph vessels
  27. Describe the liver
    • Accessory organ
    • Produces bile and bile salts used in lipid digestion
    • Stores glucose in the form of glycogen
    • Stores vitamins
    • Detoxifies harmful substances
    • Breaks down hemoglobin
  28. Describe gallbladder
    • Accessory organ
    • Stores bile from liver
    • Regulates release of bile into the small intestine
  29. Describe pancreas
    • Accessory organ
    • Releases chemicals to raise ph of small intestine to a weak base
    • Secretes enzymes for chemical digestion
    • Other enzymes are released from the small intestine
  30. Describe large intestine
    • Also called colon
    • Absorption and egestion
    • Absorb water and some minerals
    • Feces composed of undigested cellulose, living and dead bacteria and water
    • Receptors signal central nervous system when it is time to void wastes
  31. What regulates blood sugar?
    • The pancreas releases hormones that regulate blood sugar
    • Insulin lowers blood sugar after a meal
    • Glucagon raises blood sugar after exercie
  32. What happens if blood sugar is not properly regulated?
    A person can develop diabetes when the insulin production is not working
  33. Describe heartburn
    • Burning feeling in the lower chest
    • Sour or bitter taste in throat or mouth
    • Often occurs after a big meal
    • Stomach acids irritate the esophagus
  34. Describe ulcers
    Sores in the lining of the stomach caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori
  35. Describe IBS
    • Inflammation of the bowel
    • Some symptoms include intermittent abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, bloating large quantities of gas
    • No known cause
  36. Describe gallstones
    • Hardening of cholesterol, bile salts or bilirubin
    • Can block ducts that lead to the small intestine
    • Can cause inflammation, damage or infection
    • Notice when eating fatty foods
  37. Describe pancreatitis
    • Inflammation of the pancreas
    • Caused by alcohol abuse, smoking, certain medicines or high levels of triglycerides
  38. Describe diabetes
    • Inability to produce or effectively use insulin
    • Symptoms include frequent urination, thirst, weight change, extreme fatigue
  39. Describe diverticular disease
    • Pouches form in the large intestine
    • Usually due to a low-fiber diet
    • Can lead to inflammation of the colon, pain, fever, nausea or constipation
  40. Describe esophageal varices
    • Fragile, swollen veings at the base of the esophagus
    • Caused by disease of the liver
  41. Describe liver disease
    • Often caused by prolonged, excessive alcohol consumption leading to damage to the liver cells and build up of fats in the liver
    • May lead to cirrhosis
  42. Describe hiata hernia
    • Weakness in the diaphragm allowing a portion of the stomach to protured into the chest cavity
    • Common symptoms include acid reflux
  43. What are the six major groups of nutrients in the diet?
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
    • Vitamins
    • Minerals
    • Water
  44. Draw Hydroxyl
    OH
  45. What is OH
    Hydroxyl group
  46. Draw sulfhydryl
    SH
  47. What is SH?
    Sulfhydryl
  48. Draw amino
  49. What is this?

    Amino group
  50. Draw carboxyl
  51. What is this?

    Carboxyl group
  52. Draw phosphate
  53. What is this?

    Phosphate
  54. What are polysaccharides?
    • Complex carbohydrates; long chains of monosaccharides
    • Examples are starch, glycogen, cellulose and fibre
  55. What is starch?
    Repeating chains of glucose, main energy storage in plants
  56. What is glycogen?
    • Glucose storage in animals
    • Long chains of glucose molecules
    • Humans store about one days' worth of energy as glycogen in the liver
  57. What is cellulose?
    • The structural component of the plant cell wall; makes them rigid
    • Repeating chains of glucose, where every other molecule is flipped
    • It passes thruogh the human digestive tract undigested
  58. What is fibre?
    • Undigested parts of fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts and legumes
    • May be soluble or insoluble
  59. What is soluble fibre?
    • It is within plant cells, includes pectin, gums and mucilages
    • Partly broken down by bacteria in the large intestine, providing energy
  60. What is insoluble fibre?
    • Wheat and corn bran
    • Whole grain breads and cereals
    • Vegetables
    • Fruit skins
    • Nuts
  61. What are saturated fatty acids?
    • Only single bonds between carbon atoms
    • Form straight chains which fit closely together - tight packing
    • Solid at room temperature
    • Found in most animal fats
  62. What are unsaturated fatty acids?
    • Have at least one double bond between carbon atoms
    • - Monounsaturated - one double bond
    • - Polyunsaturated - at least two double bonds
    • Bent shape which interferes with packing - loose packing
    • Liquid at room temperature
    • Found in plant oils, fish oils and margarine
  63. What is hydrogenation?
    • The process of breaking the double bonds between carbons and adding hydrogens
    • Converts saturated fatty acids (liquid) into more saturated fatty acids (semisolid)
    • Ex. Turning vegetable oil into margarine
  64. What are minerals?
    • Inorganic elements that must b eaten
    • Required in small amounts
    • You need 22 minerals
  65. What are examples of minerals?
    • Fluoride is used in bone and tooth structure
    • Iodine is used in the production of thyroid hormones and regulation of metabolism
  66. What are vitamins?
    • Organic chemicals that the body cannot synthesize
    • Some are fat soluble and may be toxic in excess
    • Some or water soluble and get flushed from the body and need to be consumed daily
  67. What is water?
    • Important in transporting materials around the body, regulating body temperature, digestion, and keeping skin moist
    • Makes up about 55-70% of body weight
    • Need to drink 2L per day
  68. Define catalyst
    Substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being consumed in the process and can be repeatedly used by the same reaction
  69. Define enzyme
    Protein that acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction
  70. Define denature
    When proteins begin to change at a high temperature
  71. Define optimal conditions
    The conditions that result in the highest rate of reaction
  72. Define cofactors
    • Things that help some enzymes function properly
    • May bind to active site or weakly with substrate
  73. Define substrate
    A molecule upon which an enzyme acts
  74. Define active site
    The place on an enzyme where a substrate attaches
  75. Define critical point
    The condition beyond which denaturing occurs/dramatic drop in the rate of reaction
  76. Define ingestion
    Taking in nutrients (eating/drinking)
  77. Define digestion
    Breaking down complex molecules into smaller components (subunits)
  78. Define absorption
    Taking up of digested nutrients from digestive tract into circulatory system for distribution around the body
  79. Define egestion
    Removal of waste from the body
  80. Amylase
    • Found in saliva in mouth
    • Amylose becomes maltose
  81. What enzyme?

    Found in saliva in mouth
    Amylose becomes maltose
    Amylase
  82. Pepsin
    • Found in stomach
    • Protein becomes polypeptide
  83. What enzyme?

    Found in stomach
    Protein becomes polypeptide
    Pepsin
  84. Trypsin
    • Pancreas
    • Protein becomes polypeptide
  85. What enzyme?

    Found in pancreas
    Protein becomes polypeptide
    Trypsin
  86. Pancreatic amylase
    • Pancreas
    • Amylose becomes maltose
  87. What enzyme?

    Pancreas
    Amylose becomes maltose
    Pancreatic amylase
  88. Peptidases
    • Small intestine
    • Polypeptides become amino acids
  89. What enzyme?

    Small intestine
    Polypeptides become amino acids
    Peptidases
  90. Lipase
    • Pancreas
    • Triglycerides become glycerol and fatty acids
  91. What enzyme?

    Pancreas
    Triglycerides become glycerol and fatty acids
    Lipase
  92. Maltase
    • Small intestine
    • Maltose becomes glucose
  93. What enzyme?

    Small intestine
    Maltose becomes glucose
    Maltase

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