Soil Orders

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Author:
mking_nu
ID:
134001
Filename:
Soil Orders
Updated:
2012-02-09 09:40:13
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Biogeography Soils
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Exam 2
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  1. develop under forest in humid regions of cool to warm temperatures. They have a thin gray to brown A1 horizon and a clay-rich A2 horizon. Alfisols have medium to high base saturation and have an adequate moisture supply most of the year. They are generally fertile agricultural soils.
    Alfisols
  2. form from weathering processes that generate minerals with little orderly crystalline structure. The minerals can result in an unusually high water- and nutrient holding ability making them good argricultural soils. They are associated with rocks having volcanic origin.
    Andisols
  3. Soils of arid regions that have one or more diagnostic horizons. They have low organic-matter content and a light-colored surface layer. Salts may accumulate at or near the surface. They are made productive for agriculture by irrigation
    Aridisols
  4. soils lacking horizon development. They are found in many parts of the world.
    Entisols
  5. soils that have permafrost near the soil surface and have evidence of freeze-thaw activity
    Gelisols
  6. wet, organic soils in which production of plant material exceeds mineralization. Mucks, peats, marls shrink when drained. In warm climates, they are good agricultural soils after drainage.
    Histosols
  7. humid-region soils having at least one distinguishable horizon. They are young in age.
    Inceptisols
  8. deep-profile soils with high base status and a seasonal moisture deficit. They are associated with grasslands. They have solft, dark-brown to black upper layer. They may have a B horizon of calcium carbonate accumulation. THey are very productive for grain crops.
    Mollisols
  9. deeply weathered tropical and subtropical soils low natural fertility. They have low base saturation and limited capacity to hold nutrients against leaching. Hard laterite (plinthit) layers are common. They are generally unsuited for crop agriculture
    Oxisols
  10. range from subtropical to very cold conditions. They have a ____ A2 horizion incorporating active organic matter beneath a light-colored, leached, sandy A1 horizon. They are generally marginal for agriculutre.
    Spodosols
  11. Include a variety of tropical and subtropical soils with a variety of soil-moisture regimes. They have low base status, a subsurface clay horizon and low nutrient-holding ablility. They are very old soils characterized by long weathering of their clay minerals. They are generally marginal for agriculture.
    Ulitisols
  12. dark tropical and subtropical soils developed on heavy clays. They have shrinkage cracks when dry which become filled with loose surface materails that absorb moisture and swell during wet seasons. They are generally fertile and suited for agriculture
    Vertisols
  13. Koeppen climates of Alfisols
    • Dfa, b
    • Dwa, b
  14. Koeppen climates of Spodosols
    • Dfc, d
    • Dwc, d
  15. Koeppen climates of Mollisols
    Bsh, Bsk
  16. Koeppen climates of Oxisols
    Af, Aw
  17. Koeppen climates of Ultisols
    Cfa
  18. associated with permafrost, layer beneath surface doesnt't thaw
    Gelisols
  19. volcanic parent material, basaltic lavas
    Andisols
  20. refering to plant tissue
    ***Organic Soils
    BW climates often
    Histosols
  21. refers to recent- a youthful soil time, haven't been around long enough to develop distinct horizons
    Entisols
  22. youthful soils, were once andisols, but have 1 distinct layer
    Inceptisols
  23. Can be found in subtropical to cold regions
    soil is deflocculated by hydrogen
    generally on sandy parent material
    often lack CO2
    Spodosols

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