KIN 2509 Ch 5

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dfusel2
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134032
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KIN 2509 Ch 5
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2012-02-20 13:40:32
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dermatology
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Dermatology
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  1. Dermatology
    the branch of medicine concerned with the study of the skin, diseases of the skin, and the relationship of cutaneous lesions to systemic disease
  2. dermatologist
    physician who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of skin disease
  3. albinism
    a group of inherited disorders that produce a deficiency or absence of pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes (or eyes only) related to an abnormality in the production of melanin
  4. androgen
    generic term for an agent (usually a hormone - testosterone, androsterone) that stimulates the activity of accessory male sex organs or encourages the development of male characteristics (masculinization)
  5. avascular
    • referring to a kind of tissue that does not have blood vessels
    • not receiving a sufficient supply of blood in tissue (result of blockage by blood clot or deliberate stoppage of flow during surgery)
    • nonvascular
  6. collagen
    dense connective tissue strands or fibers of the tendons, ligaments, and fascia
  7. dissipated
    scattered in various directions; dispersed
  8. ductule
    • a very small duct
    • duct = to lead, carry
    • ule = small, minute
  9. melanin
    the pigment produced by melanocytes that gives color to hair, skin, and the choroid of the eye
  10. melanocyte
    • a melanin-forming cell
    • those of the skin are found in the lower epidermis
  11. pathogens
    any microorganism capable of producing disease
  12. pore
    • minute opening, especially on the epithelial surface
    • the opening of the secretory duct of a sweat gland
  13. sebum
    an oily, fatty secretion of the sebaceous glands of the skin
  14. sebaceous
    containing, or pertaining to, sebum
  15. squamous
    platelike, scaly, or covered with scales
  16. stratified
    arranged in layers
  17. subcutaneous
    • beneath the skin
    • hypodermis
  18. sudoriferous
    • sweat-secreting
    • refers to glands of the skin
  19. integumentary system
    the skin (largest organ of the body) and its accessory structures - glands, hair, nails
  20. Specialized functions of the skin
    • Thermoregulation
    • Bacterial protection
    • Sensory functions
    • Sweat and sebum production
  21. structure of skin
    • epidermis: outer layer
    • dermis: inner layer
    • subcutaneous layer: beneath the dermis
  22. epidermis
    • protective layer of skin
    • composed of stratified squamous epithelium that varies in thickness
    • avascular - does not contain blood vessels, lymphatic vessels or nerve endings
    • depends on the rich supply of blood vessels in the dermis for nourishment and skin tone
  23. layers of the epidermis
    • four or five cellular layers
    • stratum corneum: outermost layer
    • stratum germinativum: innermost layer (basal layer)
  24. stratum corneum
    • horny layer of epidermis
    • consists of many layers of dead cells filled with a hard, horny protein - keratin
    • keratin continuously flakes away
    • effective barrier against pathogens and most chemicals
    • keratin is relatively waterproof - minimizes loss of water & prevents dehydration; prevents entry of excess water into body
  25. stratum germinativum
    • location of continuous cell division
    • new basal cells multiply and are pushed up towards the stratum corneum
    • as the cells are pushed up, they flatten, shrink, and become filled with keratin
  26. dermis
    • corium
    • lies under the epidermis
    • consists of dense connective tissue that is rich with blood and lymph vessels, nerve endings, oil and sweat glands, and hair follicles
    • all of the structures are embedded in deep connective tissue containing collagenous and elastic fibers
  27. extensibility
    the ability of skin to stretch due to the combination of collagenous and elastic fibers
  28. elasticity
    the ability of skin to return to its original shape after extension or contraction due to the combination of collagenous and elastic fibers
  29. striae
    • stretch marks
    • in cases of extreme stretching (pregnancy, obesity, edema), small tears occur that are originally red
    • they do not disappear - turn to silvery white streaks
  30. subcutaneous tissue
    • hypodermis
    • another connective tissue layer that binds the dermis to the underlying structures (adipose tissue)
    • collagenous and elastic fibers reinforce the hypodermis particularly on the plams and soles where the skin is firmly attached to underlying structures
  31. adipose tissue
    • contains lipocytes (fat cells)
    • the amount of adipose tissue in the hypodermis varies with sex, age, region of the body, and nutritional state of the individual
  32. accessory structures of the skin
    • glands
    • hair
    • nails
  33. exocrine glands
    • excrete substances through ducts
    • Ex - sweat glands & oil glands
  34. sudoriferous glands
    • sweat glands
    • secrete persperation or sweat onto the surface of the skin through pores
    • main function - help maintain body temp. and excrete certain wastes
    • located primarily on the palms, soles, forehead, and armpits (axillae)
  35. ceruminous glands
    • modified sudoriferous glands
    • found only in the external auditory canal (ear canal)
    • secrete cerumen (earwax) - water and insect repellent; protects tympanum (eardrum) from drying out
    • excessive secretion of cerumen can interfere with hearing
  36. sebaceous glands
    • located in the dermis
    • produce an oily substance known as sebum
    • secrete sebum through ducts into the hair follicle
    • sebum is dissipated to the surface of the skin where it protects, lubricates, and helps to waterproof the skin
    • androgens regulate the production and secretion of sebum (increases during adolescence)
  37. adip/o
    fat
  38. lip/o
    fat
  39. adipocyte
    a fat cell
  40. lipoma
    • a benign fatty tumor
    • adipoma
  41. cutane/o
    skin
  42. derm/o
    skin
  43. dermat/o
    skin
  44. subcutaneous
    under the skin
  45. hypodermic
    • under the skin
    • subcutaneous
  46. dermatitis
    inflammation of the skin
  47. hidr/o
    sweat
  48. sudor/o
    sweat
  49. hidrosis
    abnormal condition of sweat
  50. sudoresis
    profuse sweating
  51. histi/o
    tissue
  52. hist/o
    tissue
  53. histioblast
    a tissue-forming cell
  54. histology
    study of the microscopic structure of tissue
  55. ichthy/o
    • dry, scaly
    • fishlike
  56. ichthyosis
    • abnormal condition of dry, scaly skin (resembling fish skin)
    • congenital disorder of keritinization (hard tissue) characterized by non-inflammatory dryness and scaling of the skin
    • it can also be acquired and is often associated with other defects & abnormalities of lipid (fat) metabolism
  57. kerat/o
    horny tissue, har, cornea
  58. keratosis
    an abnormal condition characterized by the formation of horny growths
  59. myc/o
    fungus
  60. dermatomycosis
    abnormal condition of a skin infection caused by a particular fungus
  61. onych/o
    nail
  62. ungu/o
    nail
  63. onychomalacia
    abnormal softening of the nail
  64. ungual
    pertaining to a fingernail or toenail
  65. pil/o
    hair
  66. trich/o
    hair
  67. pilonidal
    a growth of hair in a dermoid cyst or in a sinus opening on the skin
  68. trichopathy
    any disease of the hair
  69. scler/o
    hardening, sclera
  70. scleroderma
    abnormal hardening of the skin
  71. seb/o
    sebum, sebaceous
  72. seborrhea
    excessive secretion or discharge of sebum
  73. squam/o
    scale
  74. squamous
    relating to or covered with scales
  75. xer/o
    dry
  76. xeroderma
    • dryness of the skin
    • mild form of ichthyosis
  77. albin/o
    white
  78. leuk/o
    white
  79. leukocyte
    white blood cell
  80. cirrh/o
    yellow
  81. jaund/o
    yellow
  82. xanth/o
    yellow
  83. cirrhosis
    abnormal condition characterized by yellowness of the skin, which may indicate a liver disease
  84. jaundice
    abnormal condition characterized by yellowness of the skin that is an indication of other abnormalities
  85. xanthoderma
    yellowish discoloration of the skin
  86. cyan/o
    blue
  87. cyanoderma
    • bluish discoloration of the skin
    • cyanosis
    • condition caused by deficient oxygenation of blood, as seen in drowning victims
  88. erythem/o
    red
  89. erythemat/o
    red
  90. erythr/o
    red
  91. erythema
    redness of the skin cause by a capillary dilation
  92. erythematous
    relating to a redness of the skin
  93. erythrocyte
    red blood cell
  94. melan/o
    black
  95. melanoma
    • any of a group of malignant neoplasms that originate in the skin and are made up of melanocytes
    • "black tumor"
  96. an-
    without, not
  97. dia-
    through, across
  98. epi-
    above, upon
  99. hyper-
    excessive, above normal
  100. anhidrosis
    abnormal condition characterized by inadequate perspiration or sweating
  101. diaphoresis
    • condition of profuse sweating
    • sudoresis
  102. epidermolysis
    loosening of the epidermis
  103. hyperhidrosis
    • abnormal condition of excessive sweating
    • sudorrhea
  104. hypo-
    under, below
  105. sub-
    under, below
  106. subungual
    pertaining to beneath the nail of a finger or toe
  107. -derma
    skin
  108. -logist
    specialist in the study of
  109. -logy
    study of
  110. -oid
    resembling
  111. -pathy
    disease
  112. -plasty
    surgical repair
  113. -tome
    instrument to cut
  114. scleroderma
    • hardening of the skin
    • chronic manifestation of progressive systemic sclerosis in which the skin is taut, firm, and edematous (thus limiting movement)
  115. lipoid
    resembling fat
  116. dermatopathy
    any disease of the skin
  117. dermatoplasty
    • surgical repair of the skin
    • plastic surgery of the skin (as by skin grafting)
  118. dermatome
    an instrument for cutting thin slices of skin for grafting
  119. abscess
    a localized collection of pus in any body part, resulting from the invasion of a pyogenic (pus-forming) bacterium
  120. acne
    an inflammatory papular and pustular eruption of the skin
  121. acne vulgaris
    • an eruption (predominantly on the face, upper back, and chest) made up of comedones (blackheads), cysts, papules, and pustules on an inflammatory base
    • the condition occurs in most people during puberty and adolescence because of increased secretion of androgens
  122. alopecia
    • partial or complete absence or loss of hair, especially of the head; baldness
    • the condition may be due to the aging process, disease, injury, or treatment (chemotherapy)
  123. basal cell carcinoma
    • malignant tumor of the basal cell layer of the epidermis that is locally invasive but rarely metastasizes
    • the condition occurs most frequently on areas of the skin exposed to the sun
  124. carbuncle
    • pyogenic infect of the skin, or abscess
    • the most common sites of these lesions are hairy parts of the body exposed to irritation, pressure, friction, or moisture
  125. cellulitis
    inflammation of cellular or connective tissue
  126. cicatrix
    firm scar tissue that forms in the healing of a sore or wound
  127. comedo
    blackhead; discolored dried sebum plugging an excretory duct of the skin
  128. contusion
    • an injury in which the skin is not broken, caused by a blow to the body and characterized by swelling, discoloration, and pain
    • the immediate application of cold may limit the development of a contusion
    • bruise
  129. cyst
    closed sac or pouch in or under the skin with a definate wall that contains fluid, semifluid, or solid material
  130. sebaceous cyst
    • a cyst filled with sebum (fatty material) from a sebaceous gland
    • the cyst may enlarge as sebum collects and may become infected
  131. dermatitis
    inflammation of the skin
  132. seborrheic dermatitis
    • an acute or subacute form of dermatitis characterized by dry or moist greasy scales
    • common sites are the scalp, eyelids, face, external surfaces of the ears, axillae, breasts, groin, and gluteal folds
  133. dermatomycosis
    fungal infection of the skin
  134. discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE)
    • a chronic skin disease characterized by remissions and exacerbations of a scaling, red, macular rash
    • lesions contains plugged follicles & are atrophic
    • in one form - lesions are above the chin
    • second form - lesions on rest of body below chin
    • thought to be an autoimmune disorder
    • 5x more common in women
  135. ecchymosis
    black and blue mark on the skin caused by hemorrhages into the skin from injury or by leakage of blood from blood vessels underneath the skin
  136. eczema
    generic term for inflammatory condition of the skin; superficial dermatitis of unknown cause
  137. erythema
    redness or inflammation of the skin or mucous membranes resulting from dilation and congestion of superficial capillaries
  138. erythroderma
    abnormal redness of the skin, usually related to widespread areas of erythema
  139. exanthematous viral disease
    viral infection characterized by a rash
  140. furuncle
    an abscess involving the entire hair follicle and adjacent subcutaneous tissue
  141. gangrene
    necrosis or death of tissue, usually the result of ischemia (loss of blood supply), bacterial invasion, and subsequent putrefaction (decomposition of proteins by bacteria)
  142. granuloma
    one of a variety of inflammed, granular-appearing tissues; a benign mass of granulation tissue
  143. herpes
    a word used to indicate vesicular eruption caused by a virus, especially herpes simplex or herpes zoster, and the condition commonly called cold sore or fever blister
  144. herpes zoster
    an acute inflammatory eruption of highly painful vesicles on the trunk of the body or occasionally on the face, which mainly affects adults
  145. hisutism
    condition characterized by excessive growth of hair or presences of hair in unusual places, especially in women
  146. hyperhidrosis
    excessive perspiration often caused by heat, hyperthyroidism, strong emotion, menopause, or infection
  147. ichthyosis
    a condition in which the skin is dry and scaly, resembling fish skin
  148. ichthyosis vulgaris
    a hereditary form of ichthyosis with two genetically distinct types - dominant & sex-linked
  149. dominant ichthyosis vulgaris
    • produced by an autosomal dominant gene
    • characterized by dry, rough, scaly skin
    • not present at birth; usually noticed between the ages of 1 & 4 yrs
    • many cases improve in later life
  150. sex-linked ichthyosis vulgaris
    • a form of ichthyosis present only in men
    • transmitted by a woman as a recessive gene
  151. impetigo
    inflammatory skin disease characterized by isolated pustules that become crusted & rupture
  152. Kaposi sarcoma
    a vascular malignancy that is often first apparent in the skin or mucous membranes but may involve the viscera
  153. keloid
    an overgrowth of scar tissue at the site of a wound of the skin
  154. keratosis
    any horny growth on the skin (e.g. callus or wart)
  155. actinic keratosis
    a horny, premalignant lesion of the skin caused by excessive exposure to sunlight
  156. seborrheic keratosis
    a benign skin tumor that may be pigmented, made up of immature epithelial cells
  157. laceration
    wound or irregular tear of the flesh
  158. lesion
    • a wound, injury, or pathological change in body tissue
    • benign, cancerous, gross, occult, or primary
  159. lipoma
    • a benign growth made up of fatty tissue
    • synonymous with adipoma
  160. melanoma
    any of a group of malignant, darkly pigmented neoplasms that originate in the skin and are made up of melanocytes
  161. nevus
    a pigmented skin blemish that is usually benign but may become cancerous
  162. onychia
    inflammation of the nailbed
  163. pediculosis
    infestation with lice
  164. petechia
    minute or small hemorrhagic spot on the skin
  165. pruritis
    itching, which may be a symptom of a process such as an allergic reaction
  166. psoriasis
    chronic skin disease characterized by itchy red patches covered with silvery scales
  167. purpura
    any of several bleeding disorders characterized by bleeding into the skin
  168. pustule
    small elevation of skin filled with lymph or pus
  169. scabies
    contagious skin disease transmitted by the itch mite
  170. seborrhea
    any of several common skin conditions in which an overproduction of sebum by the sebaceous glands results in excessive oiliness or dry scales
  171. shingles
    see herpes zoster
  172. squamous cell carcinoma
    a slow-growing malignant tumor of squamous epithelium
  173. suppuration
    the formation of pus
  174. systemic lupus erythematosus
    • a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease involving multiple organ systems and marked by periods of exacerbation and remission
    • characterized by a butterfly rash over the nose
  175. tinea
    any fungal skin disease, frequently caused by ringworm
  176. ulcer
    an open sore or lesion of the skin or mucous membrane accompanied by sloughing of inflamed necrotic tissue
  177. decubitus ulcer
    • an inflammation, sore, or ulcer in the skin over a bony prominence caused by impaired circulation in a portion of the body surface from lying in one position over a prolonged period of time
    • pressure sore or bedsore
  178. urticaria
    allergic reaction of the skin characterized by eruption of pale-red elevated patches called wheals (hives)
  179. vitiligo
    localized loss of skin pigmentation characterized by milk-white patches
  180. types of burns
    • thermal: most common; caused by contact with hot substances, fire, steam, scalds
    • chemical: caused by alkalies or acids
    • electrical: caused by either low or high voltage currents
  181. burn classification
    • partial thickness
    • full thickness
  182. primary lesions
    • flat lesions
    • elevated lesions
  183. secondary lesions
    depressed legions
  184. flat lesions
    • flat, discolored, circumscribed lesions of any size
    • macule
  185. macule
    • flat, pigmented, circumscribed area less than 1 cm in diameter
    • Ex - freckle, flat mole, or rash that occurs in rubella
  186. elevated lesions
    • solid: papule, nodule, tumor, wheal
    • fluid filled: vesicle, bulla, pustule
  187. papule
    • solid raised lesion less than 1 cm in diameter that may be the same color as the skin or pigmented
    • Ex - nevus, warts, pimples, ringworm, psoriasis, eczema
  188. nodule
    • palpable, circumscribed lesion, larger and deeper than a papule (0.6 to 2 cm in diameter)
    • extends into the dermal area
    • Ex - intradermal nevus, benign or malignant tumor
  189. tumor
    • solid, elevated lesion larger than 2 cm in diameter that extends into the dermal and subcutaneous layers
    • Ex - lipoma, steatoma, dermatofibroma, hemangioma
  190. wheal
    • elevated, firm, rounded lesion with localized skin edema (swelling) that varies in size, shape, and color
    • white in the center with a pale-red periphery
    • accompanied by itching
    • Ex - hives, insect bites, urticaria
  191. vesicle
    • elevated, circumscribed, fluid-filled lesion
    • less than 0.5 cm in diamter
    • Ex - poison ivy, shingles, chickenpox
  192. bulla
    • a vesicle or blister larger than 1 cm in diameter
    • Ex - second degree burns, severe poison oak, ivy dermatitis
  193. pustule
    • small, raised, circumscribed lesion that contains pus
    • usually less than 1 cm in diameter
    • Ex - acne, furuncle, pustular psoriasis, scabies
  194. depressed lesions
    • caused by loss of skin surface
    • excoriations, fissure, ulcer
  195. excoriations
    • linear scratch marks or traumatized abrasions of the epidermis
    • Ex - scratches, abrasions, chemical or thermal burns
  196. fissure
    • small slit or cracklike sore that extends into the dermal layer
    • could be caused by continuous inflammation and drying
  197. ulcer
    • an open sore or lesion that extends to the dermis and usually heals with scarring
    • Ex - pressure sore, basal cell carcinoma
  198. partial-thickness burns
    • superficial partial-thickness burns: damage only two or three layers of the epidermis and generally tend to heal in 2 to 7 days; sunburns or steam burns
    • deep partial-thickness burns: involve the entire epidermal layer & even part of the dermis
  199. full-thickness burns
    • affect all skin layers, including the subcutaneous tissue
    • center of the burned are may feel painless due to destruction of nerve endings
  200. biopsy
    excision of a small piece of living tissue from an organ or other part of the body for microscopic examination to confirm or establish a diagnosis, estimate prognosis, or follow the course of a disease
  201. aspiration
    removal of tissue for microscopic examination by suction through a fine needle attached to a syringe
  202. needle biopsy
    removal of tissue by inserting a hollow needle through the skin or external surface of an organ or tumor to draw off a sample of diseased tissue for histological study
  203. punch biopsy
    method that removes a small cylindrical specimen for biopsy by means of a special instrument that pierces the organ directly or through the skin or a small incision in the skin
  204. shave biopsy
    technique performed with a surgical blade or a razor blade
  205. frozen section
    a surgical procedure to cut a thin piece of tissue from a frozen specimen for immediate pathological examination
  206. skin test
    a test to determine the reaction of the body to a substance by observing the results of injecting the substance intradermally or of applying it topically to the skin
  207. intradermal skin test
    a procedure used to identify suspected allergens by subcutaneously injecting the patient with small amounts of extracts of the suspected allergens and observation of the skin for a subsequent reaction
  208. patch skin test
    the simplest type of skin test, in which a small piece of gauze or filter paper is impregnated with a minute quantity of the suspected allergy-causing substance (food, pollen, animal fur, etc.) and is applied to the skin, usually on the forearm
  209. scratch skin test
    type of skin test in which a small quantity of a solution containing a suspected allergen is placed on a lightly scratched area of the skin
  210. curettage
    scraping of a cavity, wound, or other surface using a spoonlike cutting instrument called a curette
  211. cryosurgery
    a procedure using subfreezing temperature (achieved by liquid nitrogen or carbon dioxide) to destroy tissue
  212. debridement
    removal of dead or damaged tissue from a wound or burn site to prevent infection and to facilitate healing
  213. electrosurgery
    • electrosurgical procedures performed with various electric instruments that operate on high-frequency electric current
    • electrocautery
    • electrocoagulation
    • electrodesiccation
    • fulguration
  214. electrocautery
    • the application of a needle or snare heated by electric current for the destruction of tissue
    • used in removing warts or polyps & cauterizing small blood vessels to limit blood loss during surgery
  215. electrodesiccation
    • destruction of tissue by burning with an electric spark
    • used for eliminating small superficial growths
  216. fulguration
    destruction of tissue by means of long high-frequency electric sparks
  217. escharotomy
    • a surgical incision in an eschar (scab) or lessen constriction, as might be done following a burn
    • used to prevent wound infection of the burn site
  218. irrigation
    the process of washing out a body cavity or wounded area with a stream of water or other fluid
  219. laser surgery
    surgery using a laser device
  220. lipectomy
    surgical excision of subcutaneous fat
  221. liposuction
    a technique for removing subcutaneous fat tissue with a suction pump device
  222. rhytidoplasty / rhytidectomy
    a procedure in reconstructive plastic surgery in which the skin of the face is tightened, wrinkles are removed, and the skin is made to appear firm and smooth
  223. skin graft
    skin obtained from another part of the body, or from a donor, and used to repair a defect or trauma of the skin
  224. autograft / homograft
    any tissue obtained from one part of the body and implanted at another location in the same individual
  225. heterograft / xenograft
    tissue obtained from an individual of one species for transplantation to an individual of a different species
  226. abrasion
    a scraping away of a diseased or scarred area
  227. chemabrasion
    application of chemicals to remove the surface layer of skin cells
  228. dermabrasion
    use of rotating brushes, sandpaper, or other abrasive materials to remove scars, lesions, and fine wrinkles from the skin
  229. cautery
    a technique used to destroy tissue by electricity, freezing, heat, or corrosive chemicals
  230. chemical peel
    application of an acid solution to peel the top skin layers, allowing smoother skin with tighter cells to occupy the surface
  231. bx
    biopsy
  232. BCC
    basal cell carcinoma
  233. cm
    centimeter
  234. decub
    decubitus (ulcer); bedsore
  235. derm
    dermatology
  236. DLE
    discoid lupus erythematosus
  237. EAHF
    eczema, asthma/allergy, and hay fever
  238. EKG, ECG
    electrocardiogram
  239. FS
    frozen section
  240. ID
    intradermal
  241. IM
    • intramuscular
    • infectious mononucleosis
  242. IMP
    • impression
    • synonymous with diagnosis (dx)
  243. I&D
    incision and drainage
  244. IV
    intravenous
  245. JVD
    jugular venous distention
  246. mg
    milligram
  247. mm
    millimeter
  248. oint, ung
    ointment
  249. po
    by mouth (per os)
  250. PERRLA
    pupils equal, round, reactive to light, accomodation
  251. postop
    postoperative
  252. PSS
    progressive systemic
  253. qh
    • every hour
    • q#h (every # of hours)
  254. R/O
    rule out
  255. sc, subcu, sub q
    subcutaneous
  256. SLE
    systemic lupus erythematosus
  257. SMAS
    superficial musculoaponeurotic system (plastic surgery)
  258. XP, XDP
    xeroderma pigmentosum

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