Chapter 4

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Anonymous
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134050
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Chapter 4
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2012-02-09 13:08:00
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Prokaryotic Cell Structure
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Prokaryotic Cell Structure
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  1. What do metachromatic granules contain?
    Inorganic Phosphate
  2. Is it the proteins or the fatty acid tails which are responsible for giving the "Fluid Mosaic Model" of the plasma membrane its MOSAIC portion of the name?
    The insertion of the proteins.
  3. Dormant, resistant structures in bacteria.
    Endospores
  4. The term for bacteria which have a cluster of flagella at one or both ends.
    Lophotrichous
  5. The term for flagella that are spread evenly around the surface of the bacterium.
    Peritrichous
  6. The term for bacteria that have a single flagellum at each end.
    Amphitrichous
  7. A glycocalyx that easily sluffs off, loosely attached.
    Slime Layer
  8. A cell with an internal salt concentration of 0.1% salt is placed in a solution of 2% salt solution. Is the solution surrounding the cell considered hypotonic or hypertonic?
    The solution surrounding the cell is considered hypertonic .
  9. Adjacent rows of NAG and NAM are crosslinked by these.
    Polypeptides
  10. This is the diffusion of water.
    Osmosis
  11. In a solution consisting of salt dissolved in water, which is the solute?
    salt
  12. When a substance is chemically altered as it is moved across the plasma membrane.
    Group Translocation
  13. Do gram positive cells have thick or thin peptidoglycan layers?
    Thick
  14. This method of moving molecules across the membrane uses proteins embedded in the membrane, but does not use ATP energy. It also moves molecules down the concentration gradient.
    Passive Transport
  15. Gram negative cells appear _____ after the gram stain procedure.
    pink
  16. Name the 3 genera which form endospores.
    Bacillus, Clostridium, Sporosarcina
  17. Do gram negative cells have thick or thin peptidoglycan layers?
    Thin
  18. A cell with an internal salt concentration of 0.1% salt is placed in a solution of 2% salt solution. Which way will water move, into or out of the cell?
    Out of the cell, because water flows to whatever solution is Hypertonic (greater solute concentration).
  19. Water loss from a bacterial cell, and the plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall is called _______.
    Plasmolysis
  20. Plural form of the round or spherical shape of bacteria.
    Cocci
  21. The term for membranes which allow some molecules to pass through while blocking passage of other molecules.
    Selective Permeability
  22. Plural form of the rod or capsule shape of bacteria.
    Bacilli
  23. Which region of the phospholipid molecule is hydrophobic?
    Fatty Acid Tails
  24. When the solute concentration is greater.
    Hypertonic
  25. The major bacterial genus that has bacteria with axial filaments.
    Spirochetes
  26. What is the term for the outer membrane in gram (-) cell walls?
    Lipopolysaccharide
  27. Gram positive cells appear _____ after the gram stain procedure.
    Purple
  28. Gas vacuoles are common in what type of bacteria?
    Aquatic bacteria
  29. The term for one polar flagellum.
    Monotrichous
  30. This method of moving molecules across the membrane uses proteins embedded in the membrane, and uses ATP energy to move molecules against (up) the concentration gradient.
    Active Transport
  31. The prefix that identifies long chains of cells.
    Strep
  32. The prefix for pairs of bacteria stuck together.
    Diplo
  33. Lipid A of the LPS layer of gram (-) cells acts as _______.
    Endotoxin
  34. Does diffusion move molecules down or up the concentration gradient?
    Down, D=down
  35. When the solute concentration is less.
    Hypotonic; Less=hypo
  36. How many rings are contained in the basal body of gram positive bacteria?
    2 rings; + = 2
  37. Which region of the phospholipid molecule is hydrophyllic?
    The Glycerol Head
  38. The prefix that identifies grapelike clusters of cells.
    Staph
  39. Is the glycerol head of a phospholipid molecule polar or non-polar?
    Polar; head is polar
  40. The two monosaccharides which form the sugar backbone of the cell wall peptidoglycan.
    • NAG and NAM;
    • NAG=N-acetylglucosamine
    • NAM=N-acetylmuramic acid
  41. The type of bacterial appendage (fine, hairlike) used for ATTACHMEMT, not mortility?
    Fimbriae
  42. O Polysaccharide of the LPS layer of gram (-) cells acts as _______.
    Antigen
  43. Another name for passive transport.
    Facilitated Diffusion
  44. What molecules are found in gram positive cell walls and NOT in gram negative?
    Teichoic Acids
  45. How many rings are contained in the basal body of gram negative bacteria?
    4 rings, gram - =4
  46. The type of filaments which wrap around the bacterial cell and give it a corkscrew type movement.
    Axial Filaments
  47. Name 2 unique amino acids found in the peptidoglycan of bacterial cell walls.
    D-Glutamic acid, D-Alanine
  48. Equal solute concentrations.
    isotonic
  49. The appendage used for conjugation in bacteria.
    Pili
  50. The portion of the flagellum that links the filament to the basal body.
    Hook
  51. A firmly attached glycocalyx.
    Capsule

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