Psychology Ch.1-Ch.5

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Psychology Ch.1-Ch.5
2012-02-10 01:43:54

Intro to Psychology
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  1. What does psychology mean?
    • Psyche=Soul
    • Logos=Study of a subject

    Meaning.. The study of the Mind.
  2. Who's Wilhelm Wundt?
    The founder of psychology
  3. 1st 2 major schools of psychology
    • Structuralism
    • Functionalism
  4. Structuralism
    The task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related.

    Such as sensasion, images, senses
  5. Functionalism
    was based on the belief that psychology should investigate function or purpose of consciousness rather than its structure.
  6. Behaviorism
    A theoretic orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should only study observable behavior
  7. John B. Watson
    Proposed that the study of counciousness should be replaced byt the study of behavior.
  8. Behavior
    any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism.
  9. B. F. Skinner
    famous behaviorist, became one of the most influential of all American psychologists.
  10. Skinner's Principle
    Organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive outcomes, they tend not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative outcomes.
  11. Humanism
    a theoretic orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans --- especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth.

    Giving the best we CAN!!

    Animal dont have nothing to do w/ humans
  12. Applied Psychology
    a branch of psychology concerned with everyday, practical problems

  13. Clinical Psychology
    a branch of psychology concerned with diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders.

    work w/ mental illness

    prostomedic stress disorder
  14. Empiricism
    The premise that knowledge should be acquired though observation

    Needs data, document, prove
  15. Theory
    a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of abservations.

  16. Culture
    regers to the widelyshared customs, beliefs, values, norms, institutions and other products of a community that are transmitted socially across generations

    important to know whats normal to them
  17. Hypothesis
    a tentative statement about the relationship between 2 or more variables.
  18. Variables
    any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a study.

    • Imperical get your anser from direct observation.... Smell , touch
  19. Operational defenition
    Describes the actions or operations that will be used to measure or control a variable.
  20. Experiment
    a research method in which the investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occour in a second variable as a result

    It allows researchers to detect cause and effect relationsships.
  21. Independent Variable
    a condition or event that an experimenter varies or manipulates in order to see its impact on another variable.

  22. Dependent Variable
    the variable that is thought to be affected by manipulation of the independent variable. GETS CHANGED

    if the independent variable is manipulated than dependent CHANGES
  23. Random Assigment
    when all subjects have an equal chance of being assinged to any group or condition of the study

    Chosen Randombly
  24. Descriptive/Correlational Research
    these methods permit investigators to see only whether there is a link or association between the variables of interest --- Not Cause And Effect!

    2 variables to see if thers any realeated to each other
  25. Naturalism Observation
    a researcher engages in careful observation of beavior without intervening directly wit the sbjects.

    Dont want them to know that they are being observed
  26. Survey Method
    researchers us questionnaires or interviews to gather information about specific aspects of participants behavior.

    Unrealiable Results
  27. Neutrons
    are individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate and transmit information.
  28. Soma
    or cellbody --- contains the cell nucleus and much of the chemical machinery common to most cells.
  29. Dendrites
    parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information
  30. Terminal buttons
    small knobs that secrete chemicls which are called neurotransmitters.
  31. Synapse
    a junction where information is trasmitted from one neuron to another
  32. Reuptake
    a process in which neurotransmitters are sponged up from synaptic cleft by the presynaptic neuron
  33. Endorphins
    refers to the entire family of internally produced chemicals that resembles opiates in structure and effects.
  34. Hypothalamus
    part of the forebrain that is involved in the regulation of basic biological needs --- the 4 Fs

    • Fighting
    • Fleeing
    • Feeding and
    • Mating
  35. Cerebrum
    • Is the seat of complex thought.
    • It is the largest and most complex part of the brain.
    • It is responsable for learning, remembering, thinking, and consciousness
  36. 4 Lobes of the brain
    • Occipital lobe
    • Parietal lobe
    • Temporal lobe
    • Frontal lobe
  37. Occipital lobe
    Visual signals are sent and visual processing
  38. Parietal lobe
    Registers sense of touch
  39. Temporal lobe
    Devoted to auditory processing
  40. Frontal lobe
    Controls the movement of muscles
  41. Conciousness
    includes an awareness of external events, internal sensations and self.
  42. During sleep.......
    there is selective awareness
  43. Carcadian Rhythms
    24 hrs cycles found in humans and other species--they are regulated by several internal clocks
  44. REM Sleep
    Rapid Eye Movement

    • 5TH stage of sleep
    • rapid EEG, dreaming, REM, and profound muscle relaxation go with REM stage of sleep
  45. Most common sleep disorder
  46. Freud & Dreams
    Freud believed dreams provided wish fulfillment
  47. Common effects of hypnosis
    • Hallucinations
    • Reduction of inhibitions
    • Some resistance to pain
  48. Alcohol contributes to about how much of students rapes on college campuses
  49. How can Lethal overdose occur?
    It can occur with

    • Stimulants
    • Sedatives
    • Narcotics
  50. Effects of Alcohol
    Effects your cerebellum and breathing