Bio Sat2 ch3

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Bio Sat2 ch3
2012-02-09 19:48:11
Bio Sat2 Chapter

Cellular Respiration
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  1. (ATP)
    • Adenosine triphosphate:
    • Adenosine bonded to three phosphate molecules.
    • ATP creats the energy to fuel the cell's processes
  2. Hydrolyze
    • Breaking the bond between the second and third phosphate in ATP.
    • This releases stored energy.
    • ATP + hydrolyze = ADP and a phosphate.
  3. ADP
    • Adenosine diphosphate
    • The end product of energy release from an ATP molecule.
    • Adenosine bonded to two phosphate molecules.
  4. Electron Carriers
    • How energy is stored.
    • Takes and gives up electrons to transport energy.
    • The most common are:
    • NAD+ and FAD
  5. Reduced
    When an electron carrier accepts a pair of electrons.

    Ex: NAD+ + H+ ==2e-== NADH
  6. Oxidized
    When an electron carrier gives up electrons.
  7. Glycolysis
    • The splitting of Glucose
    • The first step in cellular respiration.
    • Happens in the cytoplasm.

    C6H12O6 + 2 ATP + 2 NAD+ = 2 pyruvate + 4 ATP + 2 NADH
  8. Pyruvate
    • Half of glucose.
    • One of the end-products of glycolysis.
  9. Anaerobic
    • Without oxygen.
    • Glycolysis is an anaerobic process.
  10. Aerobic
    • Requiring oxygen.
    • PDC, the Krebs cycle, and Electron transfer/oxidative phosphorylation are aerobic processes.
  11. PDC
    • Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.
    • The second step in cellular respiration.
    • A group of enzymes.
    • Designed to remove one carbon atom from pyruvate, to prepare it for the Krebs cycle.
    • In the matrix of the mitochondria

    Pyruvate-------> NADH + Acetyl Co-A + Removed CO2
  12. Coenzyme A
    The enzyme in the PDC which attaches to the remaining two-carbon structure (after one carbon is removed from the pyruvate).
  13. Krebs Cycle
    • Combines Acetyl CO-A with oxaloacetic acid to form citric acid.
    • Works by breaking down citric acid one carbon at a time.
    • In the matrix of the mitochondria.

    Acetyl Co-A + oxaloacetic acid = oxaloacetic acid, 3 NADH, 1 FADH, 1 ATP and CO2.
  14. Citric acid cycle
    • Synonymous with Krebs cycle.
    • Called this because citric acid is broken down during the cycle.
  15. Electron transport
    • Done to return the electron carries (NADH and FADH2) to there oxidized state.
    • The electron carriers pass on there electrons to a chain of carrier molecules and finish at oxygen.
    • The end product is water.
    • Inner mitochondrial membrane.
  16. Oxidative phosphorylation
    • Uses energy from electrons to make ATP.
    • Inner mitochondrial membrane.
  17. Final Electron acceptor
    This refers to oxygen because at the end of electron transport oxygen accepts the electrons to form water.
  18. Inner Mitochondrial Mebrane
    • Where Electron transport occurs.
    • The Mitochondria is double-membraned, and during elctron transport the H+ ions are pumped out to the space in between membranes.
  19. ATP Synthase
    • The Protein that transports the H+ ions back into the matrix of the mitochondria.
    • Inside this protein energy is used to phosphorylate an ADP into an ATP.
  20. Fermentation (having to do with oxygen)
    • Regenerating electron carriers in the absence of oxygen.
    • Produces Lactic acid in muscle, and produces Ethanol and CO2 in yeast.