mental health test 1

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mental health test 1
2012-02-10 09:44:12
mental health test

mental health test 1
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  1. mental health-
    The ability to cope with and adjust to recurrent stresses in an acceptable way.

    Complete mental, physical and spiritual/social well being.
  2. Mental Health influenced by:
    • 1- Inherited characteristics
    • 2- Childhood nurturing (culture may be involved)
    • 3- Life circumstances
  3. If a problem arises- there is an increased risk of ineffective coping
    These can interfere with:
    • -Judgment
    • -ADLS’s
    • -Can alter reality
    • -Cause one to become mentally and physically ill
  4. Primitive years:
    -Illness thought to be brought on by evil spirits
    -Treatment focused on expelling spirits:
    • -Chants
    • -Spells
    • -Dance
    • -Blood-letting, boring holes in the skull
  5. If the illness caused disruption, the person was__
    out casted
  6. Humoral Theory of Disease:
    • -Hippocrates
    • -Imbalance of humors
    • -Water/air/earth/fire
    • -Lack of or too much = imbalance
  7. in the Middle Ages, priests were
    Priests were healers, shift away from “physicians”
  8. Early Christians- illness =
    punishment from God
  9. First true institution for the mentally ill:
    • -The Bethlehem Royal Hospital in England
    • -Founded in 1247
    • -Torture, cruelty, and entertainment- the mentally ill
    • were a spectacle
  10. when was mental illness a true disorderof the brain?
    1400’s- Italy
  11. Alice Fisher
    1884 in the US- trying to turn around mental health care facilities
  12. Father of American Psychiatry-
    Dr. Benjamin Rush
  13. Diseases of the Mind – note not “demons” of the mind… (1812)
    Advocate for clean, humane treatment
    • 1830- few institutions built
    • 1841- Dorethea Dix surveyed asylum conditions in US, Canada and Scotland
  14. A 2 class system for psychiatry
    • -Private for those with $
    • -Public for the rest
    • -The small private systems showed great response to the
    • positive changes
  15. Clifford Beers-
    • Yale U. student- attempted suicide = 3 years in an institution in Conn.
    • Released in 1908- wrote The Mind that Found Itself
  16. Lobotomy-
    to eliminate “insane” or violent behavior- Frontal lobe severed from thalmus
  17. ECT-
    for the depressed- large voltage via the head
  18. Insulin comas-
    schizophrenics given massive doses of insulin to induce 50+ hour comas
  19. Amphetamines-
    introduced, but not largely monitored for the depressed patients
  20. Lithium Carbonate-
    for mood swings or the “manic-depressive patient” (bipolar disorder today)
  21. commonly sedative, barbiturate, and amphetamine txt.
    did nothing to treat the illness, but made the patient “more manageable”
  22. Thorazine
    for the schizophrenic patient and those with psychoses
  23. OBRA (Omnibus Budget Reform Act)
    introduced and passed to help guide placement of the patient
  24. Inpatient- psych care admission on a need basis
    What is considered?
    • -Severity of illness
    • -Level of dysfunction
    • -Can the setting handle the patient?
    • -Can/will the pt. cooperate
    • -Payment ability?
  25. Voluntary- client seeks help
    • • Client aware they have a problem
    • •Is an active participant in treatment plan
    • •Functionally high level
    • •Low potential for violence
  26. Involuntary- patient may harm self or community
    • •Lack insight into own problems
    • •Initiated by someone other than client
    • •Protected environment for client/community safety
  27. Outpatient care setting- within own environment, outpatient
    • •Remain in the community- work, school, etc…
    • •Focus on treatment, rehab, prevention/maintenance
    • •Some focus in one area- AA, NA
    • •Supervision is limited
    • •Responsibility for treatment lie with the patient
  28. altruism
    the respect for the uniqueness of others
  29. ID
    • —Storage area for basic drives and childhood experiences
    • —Contains instinctual drive for self-preservation
    • —Basic instincts
    • —“I want it now!”
    • —Freud- ID driven by “pleasure principle”
    • —Seeking pleasure and avoiding pain regardless of the outcome
  30. EGO
    • —“I”
    • —The conscious mind
    • —About 2 the child becomes aware of “self”
    • —Sets some degree of control over ID (typically a bit older than 2)
    • —This is the reality part of the personality
    • —Is the mediator between ID and SUPER EGO
    • —Last to develop when child exposed to attitudes, values, role expectations, taboos, standards
    • —Behavior CONTROLLED by SE, can result in very guilt-ridden, repressed people.
  32. Conscious portion-
    • •punishment thru guilt and anxiety when behavior from strict standards of EGO ideals
    • •Can easily recall past experiences
    • •Able to control most situations
  33. Unconscious-
    • stored from childhood
    • •May be brought to surface thru hypnosis or drug therapy
    • •Can cause severe anxiety when recalled
  34. Oral Stage-
    • birthto 1year
    • -Pleasure via oral stimulation-Sucking, biting, chewing and PURE ID
  35. •Anal Stage-
    1-2 years-Pleasure through elimination
  36. —Phallic
    • age 3-5
    • -Pleasure focused in the genital area
    • -Strong attachment may occur toward the opposite sex parent
    • -Jealousy of same sex parent may occur
    • -BOYS- Oedipal Complex (love for mother)
    • -GIRLS- Electra Complex (love for father)
  37. Latency Stage-
    • age6-12
    • -Quiet development
    • -Biological urges tend to taper some
    • -Learns to identify with the same sex parent
  38. Genital Stage-
    • age12-18
    • -Biological urges re-start and sexual intercourse mayoccur
    • -Hetero vs-homosexual identity formed
  39. —Dream analysis-
    Freud thought that during sleep, the SUPER EGO was less active so ID could express itself in dreams
  40. •Free association-
    • presentation of a series of pics and asked what comesimmediately to mind?
    • •This would then beinterpreted to decipher the real meanings to each response…
  41. Infancy- Birth to 1 year
    • —Task- Trust vs.
    • Mistrust

    • —Biological needs
    • driven stage

    • —Trust develops or
    • doesn’t, toward others

    • —So needs will or will
    • not be met
  42. Early Childhood- age 1-3
    • —Task: Autonomy vs.
    • Shame and Doubt

    —EGO is developing

    • —Feelings of love and
    • worthiness is focus

    —Self is independent

    • —Motor skills
    • developing

    • —Potty training
    • (adapting to social norms)

    • —If child is deprived,
    • shame will ensue and learning can cease
  43. Preschool- age 3-6
    • —Task: Initiative vs.
    • Guilt

    • —Conscious and role
    • identity develops

    • —Cooperative play and
    • socialization

    —Imitates adults

    • —Begins to evaluate
    • own behavior

    • —There is a need for
    • limit setting- leading to values identification
  44. Latency- school age 6-12
    • —Task: Industry vs.
    • Inferiority

    • —Learning moves from
    • home to school

    • —Growth toward
    • independence

    • —Learns to behave
    • according to rules

    —Accepts instruction

    • —Develops confidence
    • and receives recognition

    • —If no recognition-
    • especially from peers-will lead to inferiority
  45. Puberty- age 12-18
    • —Task: Identity vs.
    • Diffusion

    • —Self identification
    • and sexual development stressors

    —Peer groups important

    • —Planning for the
    • future

    • —May feel pressured to
    • pick a career

    • —Physical changes are
    • rapid- sex may become very important

    • —Mood swings- tension
    • with parents
  46. Young Adulthood- age 18-25
    • —Task: Intimacy vs.
    • Isolation

    —Develops devotions

    —Considers marriage?

    —Career commitments

    • —If no intimate
    • relationships- will develop isolation
  47. Middle Adulthood- age 25-65
    —Task: Generativity vs. Stagnation

    • —Producing children,
    • ideas, products

    —Is creative

    —Is productive

    • —May parent, teach or
    • guide to show caring

    • —Adults who do not
    • demonstrate care- become stagnant and self absorbed
  48. Maturity- age 65-death
    • —Task: Integrity vs. Despair
    • —Accepts life for what it is
    • —Finds order and uniqueness in own life
    • —If focus is “what could have been”- has feelings of loss and contempt for others
    • —Retrospection
    • —If no companionship and close relationships = loneliness/despair
    • —Remember-retirement can lead to loss of identity
  49. Jean Piaget-
    • Theory of Cognitive Development
    • Personality is a result of inter-related cognitive (intellectual) & emotional functions
    • Children struggle to find a balance b/t self and environment through assimilation and accommodation
  50. Assimilation-
    handling new situations by using existing coping mechanisms
  51. Accommodation-
    handling new situations that go beyond current coping mechanisms
  52. Sensori-motor- birth-2 years
    • -Inborn intelligence (reflex- sucking)
    • -learn objects in the environment still exist even when they cannot be seen
  53. Preoperational Thought- 2-7 years
    • -One dimensional thinking, limited
    • -Centers on self-Establishes routines
    • -Justifies own behaviors at all cost
  54. Concrete Operational Thought 8-11 years
    • -Understands numbers, weight, time, space
    • -Has a clear concept of time and space
  55. Formal Operations 12-15 years
    • -Considers possibilities
    • -Thinks in terms of probabilityUsesproblem solving for conflict resolution
  56. SHAPING-
    teaches and guides one toward a favorable response
  57. OPERANT CONDITIONING (Token Economy)-
    Reward for positive behavior (creating a desired bahevior)
    patternis learned, but if no longer serves a need, no reinforcement (can be done through flooding or desensitization)-To eradicate a behavior
    learning byexample
  60. Assertive Training-
    • -Expressing self in a constructive, non-aggressive way
    • -Helping the introvert to be able to handle self and situations in a positive, non-aggressive way
    • Can also help the extrovert
  61. Cognitive restructuring skills-
    helps one to recognizeself-defeating tendencies and replace them with more adaptive thinking
  62. Coping skills therapy-
    training in anxiety management,assertiveness training, relaxation skills, reduction techniques for physicalstress
  63. Problem solving therapy-
    • •Solving problems constructively
    • •State the problem
    • •Identify the cause
    • •Examine possible options
    • •Choose the best option and apply tothe problem
    • •Evaluate the outcomes after this isdone
    • •Revise actions based on the outcomes
  64. Somatic-
    therapy forthose with distress that effects the body
  65. Culture-
    Spiritual and religious beliefs-
    • Culture- way of life- shared system of values
    • Race- biological term based on physical characteristics
    • Ethnicity- socialization patterns, customs, cultural habits
    • Spiritual and religious beliefs- play an important role to many