Euro: England: Henry II and his Legal Reform
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What was Henry II's nickname?
"Father of Common Law"
Who did Henry II use to gather evidence and information?
Juries and Detectives
Who did Henry II use to enforce the law?
What did Henry II set up? What did they include?
He set up royal courts with his own judges
What were the types of trials? Were these methods new or old?
- Trial by jury (new)
- Trial by combat (old)
- Trial by ordeal (old)
What was trial by jury?
It involved upper class fights with nobles over land.
When did trial by jury happen?
It happened late in the rule of Henry II
What was trial by combat?
The accused person would fight and the winner is said to be innocent.
What was trial by ordeal?
The accused had a burned hand, and if it healed well he was innocent OR the accused was tied up and thrown in the water, if he would sink into the pure water he was innocent.
King John's barons forced him to sign what?
The Magna Carta
When was the Magna Carter signed?
June 15, 1215
Where was the Magna Carta signed?
At a field called Runnymede.
Where were King John's barons angry with him?
- He collected illegal taxes
- He put his baron in jail if they failed to pay taxes
- The barons had no trial by jury of their peers
- He also stole some land from his barons
Why was the Magna Carta important?
For the first time it limited the power of the king.
What did the Magna Carta state?
- The king had to follow the law like his subjects
- There would be no taxation without representation or the consent of the Great Council
- All free men would have a trial by jury of their peers
What would happen if John broke his promise?
25 of his barons had the right to revolt.
What happened when King John broke his promise?
There was a civil war and John died.
What does "Parler" mean?
To speak or to talk.
When the king would talk to his nobles what would he ask?
Why did kings need a lot of money?
To fund expensive wars
How was calling the Parliament efficient?
It was an efficient way to collect taxes
King Edward I named what in 1295?
The Model Parliament
Who came to the Model Parliament?
- The church or clergy
- Nobles or aristocrats
- Two knights from every county
- Two burghers came from every town
What was another name for county?
How did the Parliament change later on?
- The clergy dropped out
- There was the formation of House of Lords
- There was the formations of the House of Commons
Who formed the House of Commons?
All other representatives
Who formed the House of Lords?
What must you have in order to have a legal Parliament?
What's a monarch?
The king or queen
What would you like to do?
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