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What are the functions of blood?
- helps maintain the stability of the interstitual fluid
- distributes heat
What is the composition of blood?
- cell fragments
- dissolved biochemicals
percentage by volume of red blood cells in a sample of whole blood
production of blood and blood cells
thin near their centers
thicker around their rims
characteristics of mature red blood cells
oxygen carrying pigment in red blood cells
gives the color to blood cells
compound formed when oxygen binds hemoglobin
hemoglobin that does not bind oxygen
a red blood cell at an immature stage
immature red blood cell that has a network of fibrils in ints cytoplasm
kidney hormone that promotes red blood cell formation
controls the rate of red blood cell formation
What are the dietary factors affecting erythrocyte (RBC) production?
b12, iron and folic acid
deficiency of red blood cells or a reduction in the amount of hemoglobin they contain resulting in a condition called _______?
caused by toxic chemicals and radiation.....causes damaged bone marrow
caused by toxic chemicals and the red blood cells are destroyed
caused by a lack of dietary anemia....causes a hemoglobin deficiency
iron deficiency anemia
inability to absob vitamin b12....causes an excess of immature cells
nucleus with 2-5 lobes....phagocytizes small particles
nucleus bilobed....kills parasites and moderates allergic reactions
nucleus lobed...releases heparin and histamine
2-3 times larger then a red blood cell....phagocytizes large particles
only slightly larger than a red blood cell.....provides immunity
What is the approximate normal leukocyte count?
4,500-10,000 per microliter
leukocytes can squeeze between the cells that form the walls of the smallest blood vessels.....allows the white blood cells to leave the circulation
a total number of white blood cells exceeding 10,000 per microliter of blood constitutes _____?
a total white blood cell count below 4,500 per microliter of blood is called
List some disorders that alter the different white blood cells
- bacterial infections
- parasitic infection
- HIV & AIDS
are not complete cells...arise from very large cells in the red bone marrow...helps blood clot
low number of platelets in the circulating blood
is the presence of high platelet counts in the blood
contracts smooth muscles in the vessel walls, reducing blood flow
Which substances are found in plasma?
- 92% water
- organic and inorganic biochemicals
plasma protein that helps maintain colloid osmotic pressure
transports lipids and fat-soluble vitamins...constitute the antibodies of immunity
plays a key role in blood coagulation
Which lipids are found in plasma?
List the nonprotein nitrogenous substances in plasma
- amino acids
- uric acid
refers to the stoppage of bleeding, which is vitally important when blood vessels are damaged
platelets adhere to exposed ends of injured blood vessels
platelet plug formation
triggered when blood contacts damaged blood vessel walls or tissues outside blood vessels
extrinsic clotting mechanism
activation of Hageman factor....this happens when blood is exposed to a foreign surface such as collagen in connective tissue instead of the smooth endothelial lining of intact blood vessels
intrinsic clotting mechanism
this test chekcs the extrinsic clotting mechanism
prothrombin time test(PT)
this test evaluates intrinsic clotting
partial thromboplastin test(PTT)
a blood clot abnormally forming in a vessel
a clot that dislodges or a fragment of a clot that breaks loose and is carried away by the blood flow
used to prevent abnormal clotting
heparin and coumadin (warfarin) therapy
chemical that stimulated B lymphocytes to produce antibodies
protein that B cells of the immune system produce in response to a nonself antigen...it reacts with the antigen
What is the major concern with blood transfusions?
that the cells in the donated blood not clump due to antibodies in the recipients plasma
abnormal hemoglobin crystallizes under low oxygen conditions, causing abnormal red blood cells which block ciculaion causing anemia, pain, anf other symptoms
sickle cell anemia