Chapter 14

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JChristie20
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13415
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Chapter 14
Updated:
2010-04-11 22:31:03
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Blood
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Holes Human Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 14 Blood
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  1. What are the functions of blood?
    • helps maintain the stability of the interstitual fluid
    • distributes heat
  2. What is the composition of blood?
    • cells
    • cell fragments
    • dissolved biochemicals
  3. percentage by volume of red blood cells in a sample of whole blood
    hematocrit
  4. production of blood and blood cells
    hematopoiesis
  5. tiny
    biconcave discs
    thin near their centers
    thicker around their rims
    characteristics of mature red blood cells
  6. oxygen carrying pigment in red blood cells
    gives the color to blood cells
    Hemoglobin
  7. compound formed when oxygen binds hemoglobin
    oxyhemoglobin
  8. hemoglobin that does not bind oxygen
    deoxyhemoglobin
  9. a red blood cell at an immature stage
    erythroblast
  10. immature red blood cell that has a network of fibrils in ints cytoplasm
    reticulocyte
  11. kidney hormone that promotes red blood cell formation
    controls the rate of red blood cell formation
    erythropoietin
  12. What are the dietary factors affecting erythrocyte (RBC) production?
    b12, iron and folic acid
  13. deficiency of red blood cells or a reduction in the amount of hemoglobin they contain resulting in a condition called _______?
    anemia
  14. caused by toxic chemicals and radiation.....causes damaged bone marrow
    aplastic anemia
  15. caused by toxic chemicals and the red blood cells are destroyed
    hemolytic anemia
  16. caused by a lack of dietary anemia....causes a hemoglobin deficiency
    iron deficiency anemia
  17. inability to absob vitamin b12....causes an excess of immature cells
    pernicious anemia
  18. nucleus with 2-5 lobes....phagocytizes small particles
    neutrophil
  19. nucleus bilobed....kills parasites and moderates allergic reactions
    eosinophil
  20. nucleus lobed...releases heparin and histamine
    basophil
  21. 2-3 times larger then a red blood cell....phagocytizes large particles
    monocyte
  22. only slightly larger than a red blood cell.....provides immunity
    lymphocyte
  23. What is the approximate normal leukocyte count?
    4,500-10,000 per microliter
  24. leukocytes can squeeze between the cells that form the walls of the smallest blood vessels.....allows the white blood cells to leave the circulation
    diapedesis
  25. a total number of white blood cells exceeding 10,000 per microliter of blood constitutes _____?
    leukocytosis
  26. a total white blood cell count below 4,500 per microliter of blood is called
    leukopenia
  27. List some disorders that alter the different white blood cells
    • allergies
    • bacterial infections
    • parasitic infection
    • HIV & AIDS
  28. are not complete cells...arise from very large cells in the red bone marrow...helps blood clot
    platelets/thrombocytes
  29. low number of platelets in the circulating blood
    thrombocytopenia
  30. is the presence of high platelet counts in the blood
    thrombocytosis
  31. contracts smooth muscles in the vessel walls, reducing blood flow
    serotonin
  32. Which substances are found in plasma?
    • 92% water
    • organic and inorganic biochemicals
  33. plasma protein that helps maintain colloid osmotic pressure
    albumin
  34. transports lipids and fat-soluble vitamins...constitute the antibodies of immunity
    globulins
  35. plays a key role in blood coagulation
    fibrinogen
  36. Which lipids are found in plasma?
    • triglycerides
    • phospholipids
    • cholesterol
  37. List the nonprotein nitrogenous substances in plasma
    • amino acids
    • urea
    • uric acid
    • creatine
    • creatinine
  38. refers to the stoppage of bleeding, which is vitally important when blood vessels are damaged
    hemostasis
  39. platelets adhere to exposed ends of injured blood vessels
    platelet plug formation
  40. triggered when blood contacts damaged blood vessel walls or tissues outside blood vessels
    extrinsic clotting mechanism
  41. activation of Hageman factor....this happens when blood is exposed to a foreign surface such as collagen in connective tissue instead of the smooth endothelial lining of intact blood vessels
    intrinsic clotting mechanism
  42. this test chekcs the extrinsic clotting mechanism
    prothrombin time test(PT)
  43. this test evaluates intrinsic clotting
    partial thromboplastin test(PTT)
  44. a blood clot abnormally forming in a vessel
    thrombus
  45. a clot that dislodges or a fragment of a clot that breaks loose and is carried away by the blood flow
    embolus
  46. used to prevent abnormal clotting
    heparin and coumadin (warfarin) therapy
  47. chemical that stimulated B lymphocytes to produce antibodies
    antigens
  48. protein that B cells of the immune system produce in response to a nonself antigen...it reacts with the antigen
    antibodies
  49. What is the major concern with blood transfusions?
    that the cells in the donated blood not clump due to antibodies in the recipients plasma
  50. abnormal hemoglobin crystallizes under low oxygen conditions, causing abnormal red blood cells which block ciculaion causing anemia, pain, anf other symptoms
    sickle cell anemia

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