Bio 130 3rd set of ?'s for 1st test

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  1. Microbodies that have a single membrane
    • Perioxisome
    • glyoxysomes
  2. * breaks down H
    * Carries out photosynthesis action
  3. * Breaks down lipids
    * makes lipids into proteins
  4. * support cell shape
    * holds organelles in place
    * makes tracks for vesicles
    Cytoskeletin's functions
  5. What is cytoskeletin made with?
    • Actin filaments
    • Microtubules
    • Intermediate Filaments
  6. What part of the cytoskeletin is used for streaming?
    Actin Filaments
  7. What part of the cytoskeletin is used for cell division?
  8. What part of the cytoskeletin is used for the nucleus cage?
    Intermediate Filaments
  9. What is the Theory of endosymbiosis?
    That a eukaryotic cell swallowed a prokaryotic cell and now uses it as its bitch
  10. Who discovered the Theory of endosymbiosis?
    Lynn Migoulis in 1981
  11. What kind of evidence is for endosymbiosis
    Mitrochondria, chloroplasts, and plastids all have:

    • Double membranes
    • geneic material
    • ribosomes
    • size
    • cell structure
  12. What is the chromosomes made up of?
    Poteins and DNA
  13. What is chromatin?
    Relaxed DNA before its coiled
  14. What is required to do cell division?
    Genetic material must have equal amonts divided and dependable replication
  15. How far does DNA stretch to?
    6 feet
  16. What kind of cell division is meristem?
  17. The cell division that keeps everything the same
  18. What phase of Mitosis is devoted to dividing the nucleus?
    Phase M
  19. Which cell division type
    keeps equal number of chromosomes
    has normal growth (size, length and girth)
    is wound healing
  20. Which cell division type reduces chromosomes by half?
  21. About how long does interface last for?
  22. List the cell cycle phases:
    • G1 "Gap 1"
    • Checkpoint
    • S
    • G2 "Gap 2"
    • Checkpoint
    • Mitosis
  23. What happens in G1?
    • cell size increases
    • cell wall weakens
    • organelles reproduce
    • proteins & ribosomes being made
  24. What happens at the 1st check point?
    • Cell checks:
    • DNA undamaged
  25. What happens if the DNA is damaged and goes undetected?
  26. What happens at the S phase?
    • DNA Synthesis
    • each chromosome gets and identical
  27. What happens at G2?
    Microtubules and actin start pulling to divide
  28. What does mitosis do?
    Divides up the nucleus
  29. Mitosis Phases:
    • Prophase
    • Metaphase
    • Anaphase
    • Telophase
  30. Which mitosis phase is the longest?
  31. What happens in the prophase?
    • * chromosomes shorten & thicken
    • * chromosomes become condensed so that they can be seen as dark-staining objects
    • * Nucleolous disappears
    • * Nuclear membrane disappears
    • * Chromosomes turn into chromatids
    • * Microtubules form and attach to centromere
  32. What is it called when microtubules attacht onto centromere by protens?
  33. What happens in Metaphase?
    Chromosomes line up on a plate on the cell equator
  34. What happens in Anaphase?
    • Microtubules shorten & contract
    • Pulls chromatids apart
  35. What happens in Telophase?
    • * Chromosomes de-condense and become indistinct
    • * New nuclear membrane forms around chromatids
    • * Cytoskeletin pinches
    • * Plants form new cell wall
    • * Phragmoplast (group of microtubules) guide materials to create a cell plate
  36. What is Phragmoplast?
    A group of microtubules
  37. How is a cell plate made?
    • Dictyosome vesicles migrate to center
    • cell plate vesicles ride on track
    • merge together
    • cytokinesis is complete
  38. Where does cell plates being made occur?
    Apical meristem
  39. What does totipotent stand for?
    All Powerful
  40. Permenent Cells 3 types of jobs:
    • 1. Dermal Tissue
    • 2. Vascular Tissue
    • 3. Ground Tissue
  41. What does Vascular Tissue do?
    Used for food and water
  42. What is Ground tissues jobs?
    Storing or making food
  43. What do permenent cells do?
    • Work a specific job
    • or revert back to meristem
  44. Two different Seed Plants
    • Gymonsperms
    • Angiosperms
  45. *Seeds produced/released from cone
    * Woody
    * A lot of growth
    * Perinial
    * Pines
  46. * Largest Group of seed plants
    * Flowering-seeds
    * Woody or herbacious
    * Little or no growth
  47. * primary tissue
    * living at maturity
    * primary cell wall
    * Single layer
    * protects body of yound plants
  48. Specialized Dermal types:
    • Guard cells
    • Trichomes
    • Cuticle
  49. * stoma's that open and close and created for gas exchange and to regulate H2O
    What are guard cells?
  50. * lipids and wax mix
    * made from cutin
    * prevents H2O loss
    What are cuticles?
  51. * replaces lost epidermis
    * dead at maturity
    * secondary
    * goes around to form cylinder
    * cork cambium
  52. Cork Cells are what?
    • periderm cells that replaces epidermis as it grows
    • multiple layers
    • secondary cell wall that is impregnated with suberin
  53. What is suberin?
    • Wax & lipid
    • H2O proofing
    • Corks come from oak tree
  54. What does permiderm need?
    • * lenticel
    • -H2O vapor loss and gas exchange
    • -slits, disorganized cells
  55. Three ground tissue cells:
    • 1. Parenchyma
    • 2. Collenchyma
    • 3. Sclerenchyma
  56. most common
    living @ maturity
    primary cell wall
    intercellular spaces - can look empty
  57. What are parenchyma's functions?
    • * Metabolicaly photosynthesis
    • * Food storage
    • * Food utilazation
    • * totipotent-can revert back to meristem
  58. living @ maturity
    Thick primary cell wall provides support Totipotent
  59. * flexible support
    * makes certain vegetables chewy with strings
  60. List the 3 different Sclerenchyma Cells
    • 1. Fibers
    • 2. Sclereid "Stone Cell"
    • 3. Vascular Tissue
  61. secondary cell wall provides rigid support
    can be thick
    lost protoplasm dead @ maturity
    found in groups and in lots of different tissues
  62. Harden and Roundish
    Found in Fruits and seeds
    Makes pears-gritty bc of clusters
    Thick wall
    creates lumen
    branched pits-channels through secondary cell wall
    Sclereid "Stone Cell"
  63. complex tissue
    multiple cell types
    Can be either primary or seondary
    2 diff types: Xylem & Phloem
    Vascular Tissue
  64. What does Xylem do?
    • Forms hallow tube for movement of H2O
    • Dead at maturity
  65. The two elements of Xylem
    • Tracheids
    • Vessel Members
  66. Primative
    Gymnosperms and Ferns
    ressembles fibers
    Over laps at tips
    Pits- boardered and simple
  67. uniformed CWH2O
    moves laterally
    contains pit-blocking Torus
    Tracheid Boardered Pits
  68. What does the Torus do in the Tracheid bordered pit?
    Redirects water
  69. Whats the difference btwn Xylem's Tracheids pits?
    • Bordered has a torus
    • Simple no torus
  70. Has ring-like springs
    Preforation Plates
    Large diameter
    • Vascular Tissue
    • Xylem Elements
    • Vessel Members
  71. Found in angiosperms
    Not as strong as tricheids
    always mixed in w/fibers
    • Vascular Tissue
    • Xylem Elements
    • Vessel Members
  72. *gymnosperms
    * no fibers
    * primary CW
    * long narrow
    * Albuminous
    * structure like trachea
    • Vascular Tissue
    • Phloem Element
    • Sieve Cells
  73. * angiosperms
    * More like vessels
    * seive plate btwn 2
    * fibers surround
    • Vascular Tissue
    • Phloem Element
    • Sieve Tube Members
  74. What are seive tube member companions for?
    Help load sugars
  75. Simple Permanent Cell Types
    • Epidermis
    • Parenchyma
    • Collenchyma
    • Sclerenchyma
  76. Complex Permanent Cell Types
    • Xylem
    • Phloem
    • Periderm
  77. * positions leaves and flowers
    * conduction of food and H2O
    * Photosynthetic
    * Protection
    * food storage
    Stem Functions
  78. Two types of Stems
    • Herbaceous
    • Woody
  79. name of attachment site for leaves
  80. * flowers usually in 3's or 6's
  81. * leaves paralell
    * stems endogenous
    * bundles seperate and irregular
    * roots have several to many xylem elements
  82. Flowers in 4's or 5's
  83. * leaves usually net veined
    * Stems exogenous w/central pith
    * outer cortex seperated by bundles
    * forms hallow tube, annual rings in woody stem
    * roots usually have 3, 4, or 5 xylem elements
  84. Where is the axillary bud located?
    Above leaf
  85. What does "Interderminate Growth" mean?
    No set amount of growth as long as conditions are good
  86. What does "Determinant Growth" mean?
    Preprogrammed amount of growth
  87. What does "Primordia" mean?
    Early Structures
  88. Duration of stage in MIN
    (# of cells in stage/total# of cells)(hr/cycle)(60 min/hr)
  89. Difference btwn sexual and asexual reproduction
    • sexual genetically different from both parents
    • asexual are clones
  90. * potato tubers
    * tulip bulbs
    * quackgrass rhizomes
    * strawberry runners
    Specialized asexual structures
  91. Asexual propagation by cuttings
    • * grafting branches or buds onto saplings
    • * root formation on cuttings of stems, leaves or roots
  92. Tissue Culture
    genetic engineering by cutting off an aseptical plant tissue, only takes one cell
  93. All land plants are what?
    vascular plants
  94. What vascular plants reproduce by spores and never seeds
    Ferns & Fern Allies
  95. Vascular plants that produce seeds but never flowers or fruits
  96. Flowering plants
  97. Angiosperm subdivisions
    • Dicots
    • Monocots
  98. What are most monocots?
  99. What are many dicots?
  100. Whats the shoot?
    Stems and leaves
  101. Plants that have dedicated conducting tissues are:
    Vascular plants
  102. The relatively soft, short-lived tissues produced during primary growth are referred to as:
  103. Internodes are also called:
    basal meristem
  104. * cause growth in thickness
    * Hollow cylinder of elongated upspecialized cells
    * Some distance beneath the surface
    lateral meristem or cambium
  105. * The thickening of stems and roots by the expansion
    * specialization of the cells produced by a cambium is:
    secondary growth
  106. what does the vascular cambium do in woody plants?
    • * Produces annual rings of wood
    • * renews the inner bark
  107. * closer to the surface
    * adds bark that serves as protection
    Cork Cambium
  108. small cells at the shoot apex
    apical meristem
  109. * arm-like extensions
    * at it earliest stage of differentation
    Leaf Primordium
  110. * developing vascular bundle
    * darker strands in stem and in leaf primordia
  111. * located where leaf primordium joins the stem
    Axillary bud primordium
  112. Where all the new cells of the shoot will ultimately develop from
    Shoot apex
  113. * thin primary wall
    * living at maturity
    * Often quite large
  114. * moderately to extrememly thick secondary wall
    * function in rigid support
    * dead at maturity
    * no cytoplasm
  115. * relatively uncommon
    * unevenly thickened primary walls
    * function in flexible support in structures such as leaf petioles and herbaceous stems
  116. * at the tip of each main stem and branch
    Terminal bud
  117. on the sides of the branch
    axillary or lateral buds
  118. point of attachment of leaves or scales to the stem
  119. stem segment between two successive nodes
  120. breaks in the bark that function in gas exchange
  121. left where a former leaf stalk detached
    leaf scars
  122. remains of vascular bundles in leaf scars
    bundle scars
  123. remains of previous year's terminal bud
    Terminal bud scale scars
  124. When does a terminal bud form?
    toward the end of every growing season
  125. * formed by a cambium and adds to the diameter of a plant structure
    Secondary tissue
  126. What does the secondary xylem accumulate as?
  127. All of the tissues outside of the vascular cambium are what?
  128. The three tissues periderm is composed of:
    • 1. Phellogen
    • 2. Phellem
    • 3. Phelloderm
  129. composed of thin-walled parenchyma cells
  130. * dead at maturity
    * contain suberin
    * makes the periderm impermeable to water
  131. when this dies all of the remaining cells of the periderm dies
  132. * has neither fibers or vessels
    * tracheids
  133. sieve cells in what lack companion cells?
  134. * balloon-like outgrowths of tissue
    * grow from living parenchyma cells though pits
    * responds to wounding or other trama
  135. The monomer for nucleic acid is
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Bio 130 3rd set of ?'s for 1st test
3rd set of questions, 1st test
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