food prep

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food prep
2012-02-14 02:20:21

exam 1
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  1. Food is evaluated based on the five senses
    sight, odor, taste, touch, hearing
  2. Sight
    • eyes first impression,
    • shapes,colors,
    • consistency , serving size,
    • presence of outward defects
  3. Odor
    • quality and desirability,
    • 2,000- 4,000 smells
  4. odor classification
    • spicy,flowwerly, fruity resinous, euvalytus, bunto fowl,
    • next group-
    • fragrent(sweet), acid (sour), burnt and caprylic(goaty)
  5. odor detection
    • very low concentrations,
    • can adapt, in the olfactory eqithellium,
    • and volatile molecules.
  6. volatile molecules
    molecules capable of evaporating like a gas into the air
  7. Taste
    • most influential,
    • taste buds in the tonque and on the mouth palates and in the pharynx.
  8. mechanism of taste
    • combination of nonvolatile and volatile compounds,
    • saliva pools,
    • contact cilia,
    • gustatory cells,
    • electrical impulses
  9. gustatory cells
    relya messages to the brain through use of cranial nerves
  10. 5 Taste stimuli
    • Sweet,
    • sour,
    • bitter,
    • salty, s
    • avory (umami)
  11. Taste interactions
    compounds and interations create taste
  12. Factors affecting taste
    • genetic variation,
    • outside influences,
    • tem, color, day, age, gend, hunger
  13. Flavor
    • combined sense of taste odor
    • mouth feel
  14. Touch
    mouth and fingers
  15. texture
    combination of perception and feel
  16. consistency
    brittleness chewiness, voscosity, thickness, thinness, and elasticisty
  17. astrigency
    causes puckering of mouth , proteins
  18. temperative, chemethesis
    not physically hot or cold but the impression of hot or cooling
  19. hearing
    sizzling,etc affected by water content of food
  20. my plate
    • visual food group plan developed by usda ,
    • assist people in creating a personal food plan.
  21. nutraceuticals
    bioactive compound that has health benefits
  22. fuctional foods
    • food or beverage that imparts physiological benefit that enchance overall healt, prevents or treats a disease or condition and physical and mental performance
    • how can food benefit, maintain health
  23. conventional foods
    unmodified whole foods such as fruits and vegetables, rich in bioactive compounds.
  24. Modified foods
    funtional foods that have been modified through fortification, enrichment.
  25. medical foods
    food formulated to be consumed or administered internally by physician and is intended fo the dietary management of disease or condition,by medical evaluation
  26. ethnic influences
    • 25% of us population,
    • ethnic now common foods in us,
    • more variety and less fat
  27. place of birth
    influences foods a person will be exposed to
  28. geography and climate
    used to and still does determine what food are available
  29. cultrual influences on manners
    how food are consumed and the behavior
  30. buddhism and hinuism
    common to be vegeterian
  31. seventh day adventist church
    common t be vegerterian discoraged
  32. mormon church
    • dicourage consumption of alcohol,
    • coffee and tea
  33. judaism
    • kosher animals,
    • no blood
    • ,mixing of milk and meat
  34. islam
    • animals,
    • blood,carrion,
    • intoxiants,
    • improper slaoughtering method not allowed
  35. phychological and socialogical critia
    • a sence of security ,
    • advertising
  36. biotechnology
    alteration in a gene in a bacterium,plant, or animal for the purpose of changing one or more of its characterisitics
  37. genetically modified organisms GMO
    plants, animals, or micro organisms that have had their genes, altered thoriugh genetic eginerring rDNA tech
  38. food created with biotechnology
    resistane,pests disease,harch grwoing conditions, transport damage, spoilage
  39. biotech concerns
    invasion, allergies, contamination, religous
  40. 100% organic
    all ingredients of the finished product are certified 100% organic
  41. organic
    95% of the finished product meets organic criteria
  42. made with organic ingrediants
    70% of the finished product ingredients meet organic criteria
  43. contains organic ingredients
    less than 70% of the finished product ingredients meet criteria
  44. Terms that hanve no official definitions or certifications
    free range, hormone free, natural, organically produced, pesticide free , raised without antibiotics. certified organic
  45. sensory evaluation
    scientific discipline of measuring responses of people to food , preceived by their 5 senses
  46. analytical sensory testing
    • more objective and based on dicernable differences use dicriminative or
    • descriptive tests trained panel
  47. affective sensory testing
    • subjective and based on individual preferences,
    • focus is whether or not a person prefers a certain aspect a food food,
    • consumer testing
  48. taste panels
    • randomly selected individuals,
    • experts ,
    • at least 5 people gender and age considered
  49. smaple preperation
    how and where, sixe ,portion, freshness, temp, plates,lighting,odor
  50. objective evaluation
    laboratory instruments are used to measure characteristics of food quantityatively,bacterian, yeat , mold, create standards for quality control.
  51. physical test objectibe evalu
    measure certain observable aspects of food including size,shape,wight,volume,desnity,moisture,texture and viscosity
  52. chemical test obj, eval
    determine various nurtuent and nonnutrient substances in food, companys where it can be analyzed
  53. biochemistry
    study of the chemistry that occurs within living organisms
  54. 6 key atoms
    carbon,hyrdrogen,notrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur
  55. 6 nutrient groups found food and people
    water ,cabrohydrates,fats, proteins,vitamins,minerals
  56. Water
    • simplest of all nutrients, but most important
    • assimilating
    • ,digesting,absorbing,
    • transporting,metabolixing,
    • and excretting nutrients,and their by products all rely on water
    • 60-70% of water in human.
  57. water content in foods
    • foods-0-95%, fruits and vegetables-
    • 70-95%, meats average
    • about 70%oils and dried foods contain the least.
  58. free water
    largest amount of water present in food esaily seperated
  59. bound water
    incorperated into the chemical strufcture of cabohydrates,fats, and protein
  60. composition of water
    • small molecule with 3 atoms
    • 2 hydrogen and
    • 1 oxygen
  61. measuring calories
    heat is required to move water through its different states,amount of energy required to raise 1 kg of water 1C, foods measured in kilocalories
  62. specific heat
    • amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance 1 C ,
    • takes more energy to heat water than any other substance,
  63. freezing points
    temperature at which liquid changes to solid, removing heat so molecules slow to a nearly still state causing a compact configuration, requires a loss of 80 calories of heat
  64. melting point
    temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid/ no rise in temp
  65. latent heat
    amount of energy in calories per gram absorbed or emitted as a substance undergoes a change in state
  66. boiling point
    temperature at which a heated liquid begins to boil and changes to gas
  67. heat of vaporization
    • amount of heat rquired to convert a liquid to a gas
    • elevation increase the boiling point of water decreases
  68. heat transfer
    • transfers and moderates the effects of heat ,
    • about half of all cooking method rely on water
  69. universal solvent / solvent
    substance usually liquid in which another substance is dissolved
  70. solubility
    ability of one substance to blend uniformly with another
  71. solutions
    • combining a solvent usually a liquied
    • and a solute usually a solid
  72. saturated solution
    holds the maximum amount of dissolved solute at roomtemperature
  73. distillation
    extracting pure liquid from a solution by boiling condensation, and collection of the condesned liquid in a seperate container
  74. ionization /molecular solutions
    when particles remain as is in their molecular form
  75. ionization/ionic solutions
    solute ionize into electrically charges ions or electrolytes
  76. ionize
    seperate a neutral molecule into electrically charged ions
  77. electrolyte
    electrically charged ion in a solution
  78. Changes in PH/ acids
    donate hyrdrogen H+ ions, proton donors
  79. changes in Ph/bases
    provide hydroxyl OH ions,proton receptors
  80. Ph Scale
    numerical representation of the hydrogen h+ ion concentration in a liquid
  81. hydrolysis
    • chemical reation where water hydro breaks
    • lysis a chemical bond in another substance,
    • splitting it into two or more new substances
  82. carbon dioxide release
    concept used frequently with baked products to help them rise
  83. mircroorganisms
    plant or animal organism that can only be observed under the microscope
  84. water activity
    • measures the amount of free water in foods ,
    • range 0-1.0
  85. salting
    preservation method draw out of foods and to itself
  86. osmosis
    • movement of a solvent through a semipermeale membrane to the side with the hogher solut concentraton,equalizing solute concentrations on both sides of the membrane
    • /water drawn to the solutes
  87. osmotic pressure
    the pressure or pull that develops when two solutions of different solute concentration are on either side of a permeable membrane
  88. carbohydrates
    • sugares staches and fibers found in foods.
    • plants are the primary source.
    • carbon hydrogen oxygen
    • saccharide-simplest form
  89. mono-saccharide
    1 sacharide
  90. di saccharide
    two linked monosach
  91. oiligo saccharide
    3-10 monosach
  92. poly sacch
    many sacch
  93. ribose
    • pentose important component of dna rna and
    • energy yeilds ATP
    • monosachharide
  94. arabinose
    • pentose contributes to the structure of many vegetable s gums and fibers
    • manosaccharide
  95. glucose/monosaccharide
    • most common hexose found in foods ,
    • major sugar in blood,
    • incorperated into many fibers
    • fruits honey corn syrup
  96. dextose/monosaccharide
    • refined glucose used in production of candies,beverages,canned foods
    • corn syrup
  97. fructose/monosaccharide
    • hexose alsoe calld fruit sugar,
    • in fruits
    • and honey sweetest of all
  98. galactose/monosaccharide
    • hexose
    • seldom found free in nature part of lactose milk.
  99. sucrose/disaccharide
    table sugar i glucos molecule + i fructose molecule
  100. lactose/disaccharide
    • 1 glucos +1 galactose
    • derived from animal source,
  101. lactose intolerence
    unable to digest lactose to its monosaccharides because of a lack of lactase enzyme
  102. starch/polysaccharide
    digestible polysaccharide from plant sources
  103. amylose/polysaccharide
    straight chain structure 25%
  104. amylopectin/polysaccharide
    hoghly branched structure 75%
  105. glycosidic bond
    links amylose and amylopectin
  106. glycogen/polysaccharide
    • digestible polysaccharide from animal sources..
    • liver and muscles
    • during slaughtering it gets converted to lactic acid
  107. fiber
    • undigestible polysaccharide
    • units in fibers are held together by bonds the human digestive system cannot break down
    • no energy in plant origin
  108. dietary fiber
    undigested protion of cabrodydrates remaining in a food sample after exposure ot digestive enzymes
  109. insoluble fiber
    • act as a sponge in the intestine by soaking up water increases the sofgness and bult of the stool,
    • help lower blood choesterol , glucose.
  110. soluble
    • dont soak up much water
    • ex dried beans ,peas lentils oats rice bran barley
  111. cellulose
    • every plant cell wall composed of cellulose ,
    • repeating glucose molecules,
    • cannot be digested
  112. hemicellulose
    mixtrue of monosaccharides
  113. pectin substances
    • polysaccharides found between and within cell walls of fruit and vegetables
    • ex jams and jellies
  114. vegetable gum
    food industry uses as thickeners, increase viscosity gel, stabilize and emulsify
  115. inulin
    repeating units of fructose, end molecule of glucose. cramy texture infrozen dairy products no fat or sugar
  116. lignin
    touch stringy texture
  117. lipids
    fats are oils at room temperature oils are liquid at room temperature,
  118. invisible fats /visible fates
    • not easily seen in foods / easily seen in foods
    • ex marbling in meats found in bacon ,vegetable oils , large butter
  119. composition of lipids
    • combination of carbon , hyrdogen oxygen atoms in differenting proportions ,
    • not soluble in water
  120. triglycerides
    about 98% of all lipids are triglycerides consist of 3 fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule
  121. fatty acid structures
    differ from length by number of C . alos degree of saturation by number of double bonds
  122. saturated fatty acid
    • no double bonds between carbons
    • animal fats
  123. monounsaturated
    • on double bond MUFA
    • vegetable oils
  124. polyunsaturated
    • two or more double bonds in the cabon chain PUFA
    • vegetable oils
  125. phospholipids
    • FAs are attache to the glycerol molecule similair to triglercerides except of one of the FA is replaced by a compound containing phosphorous,
    • assist in moving fat soluble vitamins and hormons,
    • ex egg yolks,liver,soybeans ,peanuts,whet germ
  126. hydrophobic
    term decribing water fearing or non water soluble substances
  127. hydrophilic
    term describing water loving or water soluble substances
  128. emulsifier
    a compound that posseses both hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties
  129. Sterols
    • large complex molecules consisting of interconnected rings of carbon atoms with side chains maintains the human body
    • ex cholesterol, bile ,sex and adrenal hormonse and v D
  130. plant stanol esters
    naturally occuring substances in plants that help block absorption of cholesterol form the digestive tract
  131. amino acids
    substances needed to manufacture proteins
  132. essential amino acids
    9 must be obtains daily form the diet
  133. non essential amino acids
    dont need to be obtained through dietary sources
  134. complete protein
    • usually from animal sources that contains all the essentail amino acids
    • ex meat poultry fish and shellfish, milk, yogurt and eggs
  135. incomplete proteins
    • usually from plant sources that does not provide all the essentail amino acids support maintaince but not growth
    • soybeans quinoa and amaranth
  136. protein completentation
    • two incomplete protein foods each which supplies the amino acids missing in the other
    • rice + beans = complete
  137. compositon of proteins
    contain nitrogen atoms as well as carbon hydrogen and oxygnen
  138. amino
    meaning nitrogen containing
  139. amino acids linked
    together my peptide bond
  140. hydration
    • ability of proteins to dissolve in and attract water
    • ex ablility to form gel strands that trap ,water resulting in firm structure
  141. gelling
    ability aloows AA to be used as binders stabilizers and thickeners
  142. denaturation
    • the irreversible process in which the structure of a protein is disrupted resulting in partial or complete loss of functions
    • irreversible
    • ex foam formation,chees production , yogurt
  143. coagulation
    • clotting or precipitation of protein in a liquid into a semisolid compound
    • irreversible
    • ex foam formation,cheese productions etc
  144. enzymes
    biocatalyists are proteins formed within living cells and act as biological catalysts to speed up chemical reactions
  145. Maillard Reaction
    • reaction between a sugar typically reducing sugars such a glucose/dextrose, fructuose lactos or maltose and protein specifically the nitrogen in an AA, resulting in the fromation of brown complexes
    • ex golden crust of baked products, browning of meats, roasted coffe
  146. enzymatic browning
    a reaction in which an exyme acts in a phenolic compound in the presence of oxygen to produce brown-colores products
  147. vitamins
    • organic compounds each with a unique chemical composition
    • can be destroyed by heat, light, or oxygen
    • do not provide calories
  148. fat soluble vitamins
    • A
    • D
    • E
    • K
  149. Water soluble vitamins
    • B complex
    • vitamin C
  150. minerals
    • inorganic elements
    • cannot be destroyed by heat,light or oxygen
    • no calories
  151. Macro minerals
    minerals present in the body in relatively large amounts
  152. micro minerals
    minerals present in the body in relatively small amounts
  153. functions of vitamins and minerals
    reguale metabolic functions
  154. fortification
    • is intended to delicer nutrients to the general puvlic in effort to deter certain nutrient deficiencies
    • ex salt is fortified with iodine
  155. antioxidants
    compound that inhibits oxidation which can cause deteriation and rancidity
  156. free radicals
    • an unstable molecule that is extemely reactive and that can damage cells
    • food industry used this to help increase shelf life of foods
  157. salt
    • compound of minerals NaCl used to preserve food
    • also taste
  158. Food additives
    • any substance the inteded use of which results or may reasonably be expected to result directly or indirectly in its vecoming component or otherwise affecting the characteristics of any food
    • ex sugar, salt, cor syrup , citric acid ,pepper etx
  159. improve appeal
    can be improved by the addition of coloring flavoring and texture enchancing agents
  160. color compounds
    any dye pigment or substance that imparts color
  161. cettified colors
    synthetically produced to create colors tah are uniform in hue and blend more easily than natural colors
  162. natural colors
    colors exempt from certification obtained from vegetable animals or minerals sources
  163. flavor compounds
    flavors in foods are usually a mixture of substances derived from both nurtient and non nutrient compounds
  164. texture compounds
    food additives are used to add body and texture to foods
  165. extend stroage life
    • by reducing the rancidity of fats food storage life can be extended with additives which slow or prevent food deterioration
    • ex BHA, BHT
  166. Maximize performance
    • emulsifiers make it possible to distribute tiny particles of one liquid to another
    • ex peanut butter, milk shake
  167. protect nutrient value
    vitamins or minerals that are added to enrich or fortify foods
  168. Plant compounds
    • beneficial
    • anicarcinogens
    • phytochemicals
  169. harmful
    natural toxins are so widespread that the only way to avoid them completely is to stop eating
  170. heating foods
    • kills microogranisms
    • changes the molecular structure
  171. moist heat preperation
    • a method of cooking in which heat is transferred by water any water based liquid or steam
    • soften the fibrous protein
  172. scalding
    • type of moist heat prep
    • water reaches 150
    • reletaively still bubbles bottom and side
  173. poaching
    • type of moist heat prep
    • water reaches 160-180
    • small mottioles bubbles
  174. simmering
    • type of moist heat prep
    • just below boiling point 180
    • gently rising bubles
  175. boiling
    • water must reach 212F
    • type of moist heat prep
    • bubble rapidly
  176. blanch
    • type of moist heat prep
    • dip food briefly in boiling water
    • ex: tougher textured vegetables, dried pasta,beans
  177. stewing
    • types of moist heat prep
    • simmering small to moderate ammount of liquid
    • often become a solute
    • ex: beef roast and vegetables
  178. Braising
    • moist heat prep
    • simmered in a small amount of liquid in a covered casserole or pot
    • liquid usually the foods own juices
  179. Dry heat Preperation
    • a method of cooking in which heat is transferred by air radiation fat or metal
    • hogher heats are reached with dry heat prep
  180. baking
    • dry heat prep
    • the heating of food by hot air in an oven
    • ave. temp 300-425
  181. roasting
    • dry heat prep
    • to cook foods under an intense heat source
    • ofted basted add liquid
    • seared brown surface
  182. broiling
    • dry heat prep
    • to cook foods under an intense heat source
    • cooks food in about 10-15
    • ex tender meats poultry and fish
  183. grilling
    • dry heat prep
    • food is cooked above an intesne heat source rather than below
  184. bar bequing
    • food being slow cooked usually covered in a zesty sacue over a longer period of time
    • varies temp
  185. frying
    • dry heat prep
    • heating foods in fat
    • crisp texture
  186. sauteing and stir frying
    • frying type
    • use the least amount of fat to heat the food
    • stir fry pan is held stationary while food is stirred and turned over very quikly with untensils
  187. sauteing
    • frying type
    • done in a frying pan a special saute pan or on a girdle
  188. pan broiling
    • dry heat prep
    • placing food usually meat in a very hot frying pan with no added fat and pouring off fat as it accumulate
  189. pan frying
    • dry heat prep
    • uses a moderate amount of fat, but not enough to completely cover the food
  190. deep frying
    • dry heat prep
    • food is completely covered with fat
  191. Conduction
    • the direct transfer of heat from ones substance to another that it is contacting
    • principle of kinetec
  192. convection
    • transfer of heat by moving air or liquid currents through and or around food
    • expands principle
    • oven,simmering steaming deep frying
  193. radiant heat
    heat is transferred by radiuation in broiling,grilling and microwaving
  194. induction
    transfer of heat energy to a neighboring material without contact
  195. conventional craming method
    • time consuming
    • method used for mixing cake ingridients
    • produces a fin gramed velvety texture
  196. overstirring
    can cause the cake not to rise texture can turn out fine but compact or lower volumbe full of tunnels and have peaked instead of a round top
  197. understirring
    can result in a low volume cake contain large pores crumbly grain and brown excessively
  198. conventional sponge method
    • same as creaming methods except
    • sugar is mixed with the egg
    • batter at the end
  199. single stage method
    • all dry and liquid ingredients are mixed together at once
    • boxed cakes
  200. pastry blend method
    • fat is cut into flower to form a mealy fat flour mixture
    • 1/2 the milk all the sugar baking pwoder and slat are blended into the fat flour
    • eggs and more milk blended int the mixture
  201. biscut method
    • similar to pastry method except
    • all dry ingredients
    • luquid is added last
    • dough is mixed until moistened
  202. muffin method
    • dry and wet ingredients seperatley and then combined and blended
    • over mixing tough baked product
  203. symptoms
    • foodbourne illness
    • inflammation of gastroinetinal tract lining
    • abdominal cramps
    • diarrhea
    • vomiting
  204. bilogical contamination
    living organisms or organic material thath includes bacteria mold viruses and parasites
  205. chemical contamination
    • chemical substances that can harm living systems
    • cleaners sanitizers
  206. physical contamination
    • foreign material that could cause harm if ingested
    • class,metal,stones, and wood
  207. bilogical hazards
    • difficult to avoid everywhere
    • most killed by adequate cooking
    • minimum by cooling
  208. bacteria
    • called microoganisms abundant in the air soil water or organic matter
    • causes more 90% of illness
  209. infection
    • illness resulting from ingestion of food containing large number of living bacteria or other mircroogranism
    • listeria,salmonella, shigella, streptococcus,yersinia
  210. intoxication or poisioning
    • an illness resulting from ingestion of food containing a toxin
    • mainly bacteria
  211. salmonella poultry
    • traced to contaminated food and water
    • meat,fish,poultry,eggs dairy products
  212. listeria monocytogens
    • causes second most cases of bacterial food infections
    • unique capable of growing with or without oxygen
    • wide ph range and temperature
    • lunch meats,frozend dairy desserts, cabbage,
  213. yersinia enterocolitica
    • destroyed by heatbut can grow in wide temp
    • commonly in children
    • gi upset,fever, arthritis like symptoms
  214. shigella
    • 1 cause poor personal hygiene by food handlers
    • carried in the intestinal tract and to hands
  215. staphylococus auleus
    • major cause foodborne illness
    • lives in the throat and nasal passage
  216. clostridium botulimium
    • one of the deadlise but rarest
    • canned foods
  217. echerichia coli e. coli
    • in the digestive tract
    • in the food or water supply
    • dagerous in children
    • diarrhea,traveler diarrhea
    • unpasteurized drinks,fresh produce, yogurt, sandwiches and water
  218. campylobacterjejuni
    • cases currently equals or exceed salmonella
    • raw meat undercooked poultry, unpasteruized milk,untreated water
  219. vibrio
    • water supplies is the major carrier of vibrio infection
    • 1 cause of foodborne illnes in japan
    • poor sanitary conditions
    • rare in the us oysters
  220. molds
    • fungus that produces a furry growth bloon on organic matter
    • produce myotoxinds
    • carcinogenic
    • breads,jams, jellies ,salty meats
  221. virusus
    • rna or dna reproduces in living cells
    • cannot exist indepedently
    • 2-10%
  222. hepitatis A
    • infection that iccurs most frequently after food is contaminated with fecal matter
    • shellfish beds, vegetable fields
  223. norwalk virus
    • summer months
    • stomach flu
    • second most cause od virial infection
    • food handlers, contaminated shellfish
  224. parasites
    organisms that lives on or within another organism at the hosts expense without any useful return
  225. roundworms
    • uncooked pork or fish
    • trichinella spiralis parasite carried in food
  226. protozoa
    • animals consisting of just one cell ,
    • gets to humans through water
  227. giardia lamblia
    • transmitted through surface streams lakes
    • most common parasitic infection
  228. prions mad cow disease
    • prion infectious protien particle tah does not contain dna or rna
    • infect cattle
  229. pathogens
    are living organisma that actively evolve
  230. chemical hazard
    • substances hazardous to health
    • harmful chemicals can come from additives
  231. seafood toxins
    • chemicals from fish shellfish
    • ciguateria fish poisoning
  232. histamine food poisining
    • seafood
    • excessice histamine accumulation in fish
    • most common in us
    • fish become toxic
  233. red tide
    result of rapid growth of a reddish marine algae
  234. shell fish
    algae poisonous to humans
  235. food intolerence
    • inability to absorb or process a certain food due to enzyme deficiency
    • no immune responce
    • ex lactose intolerence
  236. food alergy
    • involves an immune response to a specific protein within food
    • skin rash,swelling
  237. contamination
    • tranfer of bacteria or other microorganisms from one food to another
    • storage,production, cleaning
  238. physical hazards
    • in food and beverages
    • glass,bone,metal,wood etc
  239. foodborne illness location
    majority form resturants
  240. hogh risk foods
    • best support growth of bacteria becasue large amounts of water protein
    • proper refriguration an freezing
  241. storage
    • stored food slowly deteriorates vulnerable to microbial contamination
    • risk, temp and amount of time
    • refrige 40 or below
    • freez 0F
    • dry storage 65f
  242. temperature danger zone
    • considered to be 40 to 140Fconsumers
    • retailers 41-135
  243. storage times
    • food exposed to danger zone for more than 2 actual time or 4cumulative time
    • fisrt in fisrt out technique
  244. preperation
    pre preperatio cooking holing cooling reheating and serving are vulverable for food bourne illness
  245. thawing
    • refrigerator
    • submerged under water
    • microwave
    • part of cooking process
  246. cross cantamination
    dont use same cutting board, tough contaiminated surfaces
  247. cooking
    temperature time abuse contributes to most foodborne illness
  248. minimum internal temp
    heat kills bacteria, freezing slows their growth
  249. meat thermometer
    upper range 185
  250. candy thermometer
    upper range 325
  251. testing temperature
    • thickest part of food 10-20 secs
    • dial readings longer
  252. calibration of thermometers
    • frequently
    • icewater
    • temper time monitoring
  253. holding
    • not held longer than 4 hours
    • kept out of danger zond
    • hot 140F cold 40F
  254. cooling
    • larger dense foods are mor susceptible to improper cooling
    • should be cooled below 40f
  255. reheating
    all hot foods should be rehaeated within 2 hours before being served to an internal temp of at leat 165
  256. serving
    • good hygiene
    • above or below the danger zone
  257. sanitatin
    • heating
    • chemical
  258. dishes
    • must meet sanitation requirement
    • hand or machine wash
    • dishwash 140f - 160f
    • risnsing- 180f for 10 sec
  259. manual washing
    • 3 compartments
    • soaking and wash
    • rinsing
    • sanitation
  260. sanitation dishes
    • chemicals
    • air or heat dried
    • scheduling
    • equipment
  261. facilities
    • promote cleanliness
    • pest control
  262. food safety monitoring
    • FDA and USDA pre consumer food
    • health departments local resturants
    • HACCP prevent foodborne illness during prep of food
    • food net- disease active survalinct
    • WHO
  263. mech of taste brain
    nervous electrical impulses
  264. fatty acids in food
    • most contain all three kinds with one dominating
    • vegetable and fish hog in poly FA
    • olive and canola oils High in Mono FA
    • coconut and palm more saturated
    • animal sources 50/50 p/s ratios
    • plant sources 85/15 P/S ratios