Chemistry 1150 chapter 4

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zzto
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Chemistry 1150 chapter 4
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2012-02-17 23:54:24
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Chem chapter 4
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  1. –titrant-
    solution in the burette
  2. atoms that lose electrons are being
    oxidized
  3. atoms that gain electrons are being
    reduced
  4. _blank_ show electron flow in reactions
    Oxidation States
  5. the numerical relationships between chemical amounts in a reaction is called
    stoichiometry
  6. the amount of product that can be made from the limiting reactant is called the
    theoretical yield
  7. Molarity
    = moles / liter = M
  8. materials that dissolve in water to form a solution that will conduct electricity are called
    electrolytes
  9. materials that dissolve in water to form a solution that will not conduct electricity are called
    non-electrolytes
  10. ------------- dissolve completely as ions
    strong electrolytes
  11. ------------ partially dissolve as ions
    weak electrolytes
  12. acids ------ when they dissolve in water
    ionize
  13. acids that ionize virtually 100% are called
    strong acids
  14. acids that only ionize a small percentage are called
    weak acids--
  15. Strong acids!
    • Perchloraic acid HCLO4
    • Nitric Acid HNO3
    • Sulfuric Acid H2SO4
    • Hydrochloric Acid HCl
  16. the degree of solubility depends on the ---------
    temperature
  17. --------- predict whether precipitates form
    solubility rules
  18. ------------------ produce an ionic compound that is water insoluble
    precipitation reactions
  19. -------- insoluble product from an ionic reaction
    precipitate:
  20. remember salt solubility rules.
    C A S H n Gia
  21. C A S H n Gia
    • "Cashin' Gia"...how to remember that? well the story is...im a
    • pimp...and gia is my hoe, and i need to get my cash from her.
    • hence...Cashing from gia.
  22. C A S H n Gia
    C is clorates, A is acetates (C2H3O2–), S is sulfates, H is halogens, n is Nitrates, and Gia is Group I A metals.
  23. THESE ARE ALL SOLUBLE, XCEPT
    for S:
    Ca, Ba, Sr.....just remember the tv network CBS

    (S was sulfates)
  24. THESE ARE ALL SOLUBLE, XCEPT for H:
    for H: Ca, Ba, Sr + Happy...whats happy? Hb Ag Pb ...mercury, silvr and lead...add a py to the end and all the first letters spell HAPPY

    (H was halogens)
  25. Ask someone about this


    –aqueous
    strong electrolytes are written as ions

    –insoluble
    substances, weak electrolytes, and non-electrolytes written in molecular form
  26. ions that are both reactants and products are called
    spectator ions
  27. •an ionic equation in which the spectator ions are
    removed is called
    a net ionic equation (NIE)
  28. Acid-Base Reactions
    • neutralization reactions (end up neutral)
    • 2 H2O(l) (makes WATER)
  29. the net ionic equation (NIE) for an acid-base reaction is
    H+(aq) + OH-(aq) -----> H2O(l)

    • as long as the salt that forms is soluble
    • in water
  30. as long as the salt that forms is soluble
    in water if not, you must...
    • –must include precipitate in NIE
    • –Ba2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) + 2H+(aq) +SO42-(aq) ----->
    • 2H2O(l) + BaSO4(s)
  31. Common Bases- Memorize These!
    NaOH,KOH,Ca(OH)2 ,NaHCO3 ,Mg(OH)2 ,NH4 OH
  32. •often in the lab, a solution’s concentration is determined by reacting it with another material and using stoichiometry – this process is called
    titration
  33. •in the titration, the unknown solution is added to a known amount of another reactant until the reaction is just completed, at this point, called the...
    called the endpoint, the reactants are in their stoichiometric ratio
  34. titration–the unknown solution is added slowly from
    an instrument called a
    burette
  35. •number of moles H+ = the number of moles OH- is aka the
    –aka the equivalence point (END POINT)

    –pH theoretically about 7
  36. Gas Evolving Reactions
    • Decomposition of one of the ion exchange
    • products into a gas and water

    K2SO3(aq) + H2SO4(aq) ----> K2SO4(aq) + H2SO3(aq) H2SO3(aq) ------> H2O(l) + SO2(g)
  37. Oxidation and Reduction
    atoms that lose electrons are being oxidized, atoms that gain electrons are being reduced
  38. reactions where electrons are transferred from one atom to another are
    redox reactions
  39. ------ show electron flow in reactions
    •Oxidation States

    • –More positive (electrons leave element)
    • –More negative (electrons added to
    • element)
  40. 2 Na(s) +Cl2(g) ---->2 NaCl(s)
    REDOX without Combustion
  41. 2 H2(g) + O2(g) --->2 H2O(g)
    • REDOX COMBUSTION REACTIONS
    • Combustion as Oxidation/Reduction
  42. Combustion Products
    CO2 and H2O generally formed

    study chart
  43. combination of each element with oxygen
    • (Hydrocarbons contain only Carbon and Hydrogen!)
    • C-CO2 (g)
    • H-H2 O (g)
    • S- SO2 (g)
    • N- NO (g) or NO2 (g)
    • Metal- M2 On (s)
  44. the sum of the oxidation states of all the atoms in a compound is 0 (except for
    aqueous ions!)

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