the bulbar conjunctiva covers the exposed surface of the eyeball up to the outer edge of the cornea.
What is sclera?
Under the bulbar conjunctiva, has the color of white porcelain in whites and light yellow in dark-skinned clients. The whites of the eye which is fibrous and protective
What are the lacrimal ducts?
In the nasal corner or inner canthus of the eye, where tears flow to from the lacrimal gland
What is ptosis?
abnormal drooping of the lid over the pupil caused by edema or impairment of the 3rd cranial nerve
What are extra ocular movements?
Extra, abnormal eye movements noticed during the six directions of gaze testing the muscles
What are the cardinal fields in the eye?
1. Right and up right superior rectus and left inferior oblique
2. right right lateral rectus and left medial rectus
3. right and down right inferior rectus and left superior oblique
4. left and up left superior rectus and right inferior oblique
5. left left lateral rectus and right medial rectus
6. left and down left inferior rectus and right superior oblique
What is the snellen?
Eye chart to measure visual acuity
What does PERRLA stand for?
Pupils equal, round, reactive to light and accomodation
What is stribismus?
Congenital condition in which both eyes do not focus on an object simultaneously and the eyes appear crossed. Impairment of the extraocular muschles or their nerve supply cause this
What are lymph nodes?
Collects lymph from head, ears, nose, cheeks, and lips. Can warn you of infection. Inspect areas where nodes are distributed and compare both sides, inspect for edema, erythema or red streaks, also palpate
What is nasal flaring?
Intermittent outward movement of the nostrils with each inspiratory effort, indicates an increase in the work of breathing
What are muscous membranes?
The membrane lining passages and cavities communicating with the air, consisting of a surface layer of epithelium, a basement membrane, and underlying layer of connective tissue
What are sinuses?
cavities in the skull that usually communicate with the nostrils and contains air
What are the hard and soft palate?
Hard palate-roof of mouth, located anteriorly, dome shaped
Soft palate-extends posteriorly toward the pharynx, light pink and smooth
What are the tonsils?
A mass of lymphoid tissue in the muscous membrane of the pharynx and base of the tongue. The free surface of each tonsil is covered with stratified squamous epithelium that forms deep indentations or crypts, extended into the substance of the the tonsil
What is the uvula?
the free edge of the soft palate that hangs at the back of the throat above the root of the tongue, it is made of muscle, connective tissue and mucous membrane
What is the buccal mucosa?
The lining of the cheeks of the oral cavity, it is characterized by the stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium that may become keratinized in local areas due to cheek biting, it may also contain ectopic sebaceous glands
What is the tongue?
Inspect on all sides as well as the floor of the mouth, note any deviation, remor, or limit in movement, this tests the hypoglossal nerve
What is an otoscope?
Equipment used for inspecting deeper structure of the external and middle ear
What is the opthalmoscope?
Advanced practice nurses use this to onspect the fundus, which includes the reina, choroid, optic nerve disc, macula, fovea centralis and retinal vessels
What is hearing acuity?
A hearing assessment using a tuning fork
What is visual acuity?
Visual assessment using the snellen chart. The ability to see small details, tests central vision
Intolerance to light. Painful sensitiveness to strong light. An abnormal fear of light
What is nystagmus?
An invountary, rhythmical oscillation of the eyes. Assessed by periodically stopping movement of the finger
Pupils normally converge and accommodate by constricting when looking at close objects. Test:gaze at a distant object and then at a test object held close
What is vertigo?
A disordered state which is associated with various disorders of the inner ear. and in which the individual seem to whirl dizzily diordered vertiginous movement as a symptom of disease
What is epistaxis?
Bleeding from the nose
What is the thyroid gland?
A large bi-lobed endocrine gland that arises as a median ventral outgrowth of the pharynx, it lies in the anerior base of the neck or anterior ventral part of the thorax and produces hormones. Inspect the lower neck overlying the gland for obvious masses, symmetry and any subtle fullness
What is cerumen?
Describe the pharynx
Part of the digestive and respiratory tracts situated between the cavity of the mouth and esophagus. It is continues above with the mouth and nasal passage, communicates through the eustachain tubes with the ears, and extends downward past the opening into the larynx to the lower border of the cricoid cartilage where it is continuous with the esophogus
What is pinna?
The largely cartilaginous projecting portion of the external ear
What is the trachea?
Tube that passes air to and from the lungs
What does the integumentary system consist of?
Skin, hair, scalp & nails
What are developmental GI concerns for infants?
small stomachs, fewer digestive enzymes, underdeveloped neuromuscular system
What are developmental GI concerns for toddlers?
acidity of gastric contents increase, stomach size increases, physiologic ability to control sphincters is present, learn control of bodily functions
What are developmental GI concerns for older adults?
decreased salivation, acid secretions, mucosal thickening, nutrient absorption, peristalsis, esophogeal emptying. Cardiovascular changes affect blood flow and absorption, less muscle tone in perineal floor and anal sphincter
What are the four quadrants of the abdomen?
Right upper, left upper, right lower, left lower
What are the nine regions of the abdomen?
Right hypochondriac, epigastric, left hypochondriac, right lateral (lumbar), umbilical, left lateral (lumbar), right iliac (inguinal), suprapubic, left iliac (inguinal)